Focardi-Rossi Energy-Catalyzer

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Andrea Rossi and Sergio Focardi (Picture "La Repubblica"). A (yellow) dosimetric pump of the type "LMI P18" can be seen in the foreground (maximum flow: 12.1 l/h)
Andrea Rossi and Sergio Focardi (Picture: TV channel "Rainews24")
Planned book of a John Michell: Rossi's eCcat - Free Energy, Free Money, Free People. (Xecnet Verlag [1])

The Focardi-Rossi Energy-Catalyzer (also E-Cat or Rossi Energy Amplifier) is an alleged compact fusion reactor that was planned to be marketed in 2011. Commercial launch was postponed several times. According to Italian inventors, alleged engineer(see below) Andrea Rossi[2] and Professor emeritus in physics Sergio Focardi, cold fusion of hydrogen and nickel was taking place in the reactor[3] which, at strong heat, led to the creation of copper. Rossi's 2011 demonstrations were criticized by various sources and several alternative explantations for the alleged effects were found. Neither gamma nor neutron radiation typical for fusion processes could be measured[4], and there is no proof of the creation of non-natural isotope ratios in the alleged fusion products. The respective experiments which should have shown energy production through "cold fusion" suffered from several methodic shortcomings and displayed contradicting statements. Independent tests, which might have proven a fusion process according to the said principle, failed so far. Specialist literature regarding the "energy-catalyzer" is not available (as of March 2012).

In March 2011, a Greek business journal titled „Investor's World“ reported the concept was central to a speculative investment deal worth several hundred million Euro. Greek startup "Defkalion is offering state licenses for commercialization of the invention at a price of 40.5 million Euros per country since July 2011.[5] However, in August Rossi ended the just weeks old association.

Inventor Rossi, having got in conflict with the law previously, had also supplied thermoelectrical elements of an alleged miraculous efficiency which, however, displayed merely average properties when tested.

The actual inventor of the principle was Italian biophysicist Francesco Piantelli in 1989 who filed patent applications in 1995 and 2010.[6][7] Rossi, who also attempts to have his invention patented, does not acknowledge priority and importance of Piantelli's patents: "My process has nothing to do with the process of Piantelli. The proof is that I am making operating reactors, he is not." Piantelli's patent expert commented in May 2011 that Rossi had no chance to have the functional principle patented since Piantelli already held a patent on it since 1995.[8] Meanwhile, Piantelli has founded the Italian company NichEnergy S.R.L. which is developing a reactor similar to Rossi's.

Some aspects of the claimed functional principle also happen to be similar to descriptions in a patent registered by Yoshiaki Arata in Japan dated July 2005 (see below). A remote similarity to the CETI Patterson Power Cell and to the Zirconium fusion reactor of Bolotov can also be established.

Purported functional principle

Power control and main switch
Andrea Rossi and the reactor (demonstration dd. January 14, 2011, Source: Curiosity-Blog)
Heating power can be selected in steps: 0...9
Several "E-cat" stripped of shielding and insulation. The heating element is clearly a "Rotfil S21" (Image: Giuseppe Levi)
Power control
Outside view of reaction chamber, lead shielding and insulation removed. Below: Outer heating resistor (here: heating sleeve 300W), above: hydrogen intake, left and right: cooling water line. Image: Giuseppe Levi
The "control box" with 12 phase fired controllers of the type "VL676" from company GSEI in Genoa (Genova)[9] (Image: S.B. Krivit)
Hydrogen pressure indicator
Typical heating sleeve
Typical elements of the "Ultramax cartridge heater" (company Rotfil)(Image: [14])
Claims of cheap nickel isotope enrichment as part of the invention (Screenshot: Blog "Journal of nuclear physics", April 11, 2011)

All data currently available regarding the "Focardi-Rossi Energy Catalyzer" come from inventors and their internet blog, from a patent application submitted by Rossi, from YouTube videos, and from statements of the few physicists who tried to replicate the principle. There has been no noteworthy reception on the part of the international physics community so far. An attempt of inventors to publish an article on their device in a renowned professional journal failed. Only individual physicists reacted with public blog entries and comments (e.g.: [20][21][22]). The most renowned person having commented the energy catalyzer so far is English Nobel Prize winner Brian Josephson[10]. Josephson has been known for a supporter of so called "cold fusion" for years. As of January 2011, no proper scientific publication is known. Focardi and Rossi publish statements in their own "online periodical" titled "Journal of Nuclear Physics", basically an internet blog, and in Italian journal "Il Cimento". Upon inquiry, physicist Focardi advised the "Journal of Nuclear Physics" was founded by Rossi since publication in accredited journals failed. Focardi stated that "" was the journal which rejected them: A. Carnera, S. Focardi, A. Rossi, to be published on Arxiv..

Rossi's company EON Srl and "Leonardocorp." did not provide further information so far.

According to – partly contradictory - information available from inventors Focardi and Rossi, the small reactor allegedly enables exothermal fusion. They claim they managed to "produce" 130 kW thermal energy in an extreme case, and needed just 80 to 1,250 Watts to "pre-heat" respectively to operate the electronic control system.

The process - disclosed only partially, although a patent application was filed (not approved as of April 2011) - involves nickel and hydrogen gas transformed to copper in the presence of an unknown catalyst under emission of heat and ionizing radiation. The fusion process is said to happen in a stainless steel reactor vessel which is placed inside of a copper pipe through which cooling water flows. The patent application claims the stable nickel isotope 62Ni28 (which makes about 3.6% of natural nickel) reacted with hydrogen and was transformed into the stable copper isotope 62Cu29. In his blog, Rossi claims he uses nickel isotope enrichment to get the desired amount of nickel isotopes. To be more precise, he claims to use an unexplained process to achieve enrichment with isotope Ni58.[11] The costs are said to be just 10% of the overall costs for nickel powder. Actual isotope enrichment is a very expensive process. Rossi, on the other hand, specified the costs for six months of operation as only a few Euros(see below). The copper thus generated is said to contain two stable copper isotopes, with an isotope proportion different from the one in natural copper.[12] An independent analysis in Sweden did not find an isotope ratio different from the natural one. Such a fusion would require very high temperatures and should result in the emission of strong gamma radiation from the destruction of positrons and electrons.[13]

While nickel rods were used initially, recent experiments used nickel powder (particle size is said to be in the nm-range, the patent application mentions 10 µm). Rossi mentions "Gerli Metalli" company[14] from Milan as their supplier. Furthermore, unknown catalysts, not specified even in the patent application, are said to be employed. Nickel oxide - which reacts with hydrogen creating water and heat (NiO2 + H2 --> Ni + H20) – allegedly was not used. According to the patent application, an inner water circuit (with a boric acid solution) is placed inside of the reactor, heat is transferred to an external water circuit by a heat exchanger.

By heating with electrical energy, protons from hydrogen gas are said to enter the nickel atoms at 180-400 degrees Celsius and lead to a nuclear reaction if pressure was increased strongly at regular intervals. Altogether, hydrogen is said to be consumed and some helium is generated.[15] The nickel rod is said to show tiny surface craters after a reaction. According to the patent application, the electrical pre-heating will be turned off automatically by a thermostat when a certain operating temperature is achieved. Further electrical energy (20 to 80 W) was only necessary to supply control electronics. The modules controlling the heating resistors are 12 phase fired controllers of the type VL676 from company GSEI in Genoa (Genova)[16] They can be, depending on type, regulated by 10 or 20 A in 20 half-steps (0..9) and have a consumption of 2 watts (in sum 24 W) from a 24 V voltage source. Internet rumours which cannot be verified claim that high voltage or a magnetic field of 360 kV to overcome the Coulomb barrier might be applied. The application of so high a voltage is not possible within such a small device due to spark generation.

Inventors also claim the mentioned "fusion" generates weak gamma and neutron radiation.[17] Radiation is said to be β+ corpuscular radiation with positrons (known from potassium 40-decay). They also claim they do not know the exact functional principle. The actual reaction chamber is estimated at a volume of about one litre and shielded by a layer of 2 cms of lead. In their patent application, inventors claim:

The above mentioned coatings are so designed as to restrain all radiation emitted by the exothermal reaction and transform said radiation into thermal energy.

A contribution in their blog speculatively connects the Focardi Rossi Energy Amplifier to the hydrino theory of American physician and electrical engineer Randell Mills who claims to work with hydrogen and nickel, too.[18] Mills is said to work with hydrogen and nickel, too. Supporters of "cold fusion" theories often claim so-called Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) were taking place. The term LENR is not known to professional journals and such fusion processes have not been proven as of yet.

Further internet speculations assume this was a normal chemical reaction which apparently remained unknown to inventors and which was usually applied in the purification of nickel ores: the "Sherritt-Gordon process"[19], which is accompanied by a heat release, but is a conventional chemical reaction. The evidence of copper thus may be explained by the fact that available nickel often contains copper contaminations.

Looking for possible heat sources, [absorption] of hydrogen in nickel in a chemical reaction comes to mind. Hydrogen gas can enter into nickel (and other metals). Extraction on the other hand leads to cooling.

The energy catalyzer and the Widom Larsen theory

In 2011, cold fusion supporters repeatedly voiced speculations that the functional principle of Rossi's energy catalyzer was connected to a theory which is not recognized by scientific physics, the Widom Larsen theory, in which the Coulomb barrier played no role. On inquiry, Andrea Rossi explained this theory was not necessary to explain the functional principle. The theory was formulated in 2005 by Allan Widom and Lewis Larsen and published in "Eur. Phys. J. C"[20] (Full Text). According to this theory, the "cold fusion" processes discussed are not actual fusion but interactions in which weak nuclear force plays a role. This theory claims electrons and protons were able to tansform to „ultra low momentum“ neutrons and one neutrino (e- + p ->n + neutrino). The Ultra Low Momentum Neutrons are said to bond to adjacent nuclei after a short time. The Widom-Larsen theory should avoid the problem of the "Three Miracles of Cold Fusion" of Huizenga - 1993 (the lack of measurable neutron radiation, avoidance of the Coulomb barrier, and the lack of high-energy gamma rays) due to purported compliance with established physical laws. Reactions involving the weak interaction are mediated by W bosons which could be demonstrated experimentally in 1983 with the particle accelerator (CERN). W-bosons have roughly 80 times the mass of protons and a very short range.

The mysterious catalyst

Inventors claim the high thermal output of the energy catalyzers is the result of a special catalyst whose composition is kept secret. In scientific nuclear physics, contrary to classic physics, the use of a catalyst in fusion processes is unknown.

Unverifiable internet rumours speculate it might be "Raney-Nickel" since two fires in Rossi's laboratories were caused by "Raney-Nickel". Upon inquiry, Rossi stated that no Raney-Nickel was used. Focardi stated he was not aware of the composition of the catalyst himself, since only Rossi knew it. In a radio interview dated March 6, 2011, Focardi offered some speculations about the compound. He believes it was a chemical compound, not an element. It was not uranium. The obvious purpose of the substance was to catalyse the transformation of heated hydrogen gas (H2) into atomic hydrogen (a discussion of possible catalysts for this purpose can be found in a paper by Romanowski from 1999[21]). To complicate the identification of the catalyst, observers were prohibited to do a spectral analysis of possible gamma radiation, since it might allow the identification of elements of the compound.


In his report on the experiment dated March 29, 2011, Professor Sven Kullander wrote the reaction was stopped by switching off the heater and increasing the cooling water flow to a maximum of 30 litres per hour. This contradicts previous claims that the heater would be turned off when operating temperature was achieved. The red wire in the picture to the right (cm 31 - 34) apparently is the heater supply. With a cable this thick it is possible to power the heater with 220 volt/10 amp from a regular wall outlet, which could provide 2,200 Watts and explain the generation of steam.

Prof. Kullander also writes the heater acts as „safety“: "At the end of the horizontal section there is an auxiliary electric heater to initialize the burning and also to act as a safety if the heat evolution should get out of control." Quite apparently, a heater cannot act as a safeguard for a heat generating process.[22]

The self-destruction mechanism

According to Rossi, future commercial „energy catalyzers“ will include a self-destruction mechanism. Any attempts to inspect the secret operating mechanism and internal components of reactors thus were prevented.[23]

Claims on practical application and success

Input and output of the reactor according to inventors[24]

According to Focardi and Rossi, they achieved increasing heat quantities with their device over the years. They claim one nickel rod was sufficient for six months of operations. Rossi, in his patent specification, anecdotally reports he was heating his company's bureaus with this reactor which resulted in some 90% savings regarding electricity bills over a period of six months:

A practical embodiment of the inventive apparatus, installed on October 16, 2007, is at present perfectly operating 24 hours per day, and provides an amount of heat sufficient to heat the factory of the Company EON of via Carlo Ragazzi 18, at Bondeno (Province of Ferrara)."

A "kW-module" allegedly runs in his "Leonardo facility" in New Hampshire (USA) since 2008.

Details regarding nickel consumption and costs

According to Rossi, 100 grammes of nickel powder were consumed over a period of six months at 10 kW (therm.) output. The cost for the "fuel" thus amounted to 2 Euro.[25] An E-cat will cost about 2,000 Euro per kW output (a 10 kW-model thus will amount to 20,000 Euro). In the North American radio chat show "Coast to Coast AM", known for propagating conspiracy theories, Rossi said in March 2011 his planned 1 MW small power station will cost 2 million Dollars, while his 10 kW E-Cat later will cost a mere 5,000 Dollars.[26] According to Greek journal "Investor's World" of March 2011, future "E-cat" devices will produce electrical energy through an "inverter". Customers were to face an annual cost of 1,300 Euros for the production of a 24/7 output of 20 kW (not specified whether thermal or electric). "Defkalion Green Technologies" plans to request inclusion into the "renewable energy" programme by RAE (Regulatory Authority for Energy).[27][28][29]


First experiments with an „ECat“ predecessor by EON in Bondeno(Ferrara). See „reactor“ on the right, cooled in a bucket of water. (Picture: S. Focardi, May 2011 [15])

"Anomalies" when adding hydrogen to nickel have been reported since 1936. 1989 was marked by wide media attention to cold fusion as a result of claims regarding failed experiments by Fleischmann and Pons. In the same year, Italian biophysicist Francesco Piantelli (formerly University of Siena) believed to have incidentally observed a strong heat emission with temperatures above 1,450° C during an experiment with organic material which came into contact with nickel and hydrogen (nickel is used in industry as a catalyst for fat hardening with hydrogen), which he was not able to explain. The incident was reported by several Italian daily papers. In 1995, Piantelli received a "Truffle Prize" for his observations during a "Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals".[30] Various workgroups have done experiments with electrolysis and with nickel and hydrogen since then.

Piantelli founded a private organisation called I.M.O. (Centro Interuniversitario interdipartimentale per lo studio delle interazioni biofisiche e biochimiche tra molecole e organismi) after he left Siena University. He developed a method called SQME (Sequenze di Campi Magnetici ed Elettrici - Sequence of magnetic and electric fields) there which, applied to cancer patients, allegedly raised body temperature by four degrees and thus worked as a hypothermic treatment. Specialist literature on this issue does not happen to be known.

Physicist Sergio Focardi from Bologna University heard about Piantelli's observations of temperature increase with nickel-hydrogen reactions and teamed up with him to research the phenomenon. After several years they had built a nickel hydrogen rector and, in a press conference in February 1994, announced their reactor as a principle for "Reazioni Nucleari a Bassa Energia" (LENR, "Low Energy Nuclear Reactions"), avoiding the term "cold fusion", however.[31] Once more articles were published in the daily press and as before in 1989, there were no academic publications. An output of 40-50 thermal Watts was claimed. A nickel rod with a pre-treated surface which had been "degassed" for several hours was said to be enclosed in the reactor surrounded by hydrogen. Italian industry looked into the matter and tried to exploit the Piantelli principle commercially. However, all attempts to put it to industrial application failed. Companies involved were TESCA Syndicate (companies Bulla, Bergomi, Foglia, Italkero and Ecosystem), FIAT AVIO SpA corporation and PROVITA s.r.l.[32]

In 2007 Andrea Rossi is said to have offered Sergio Focardi a contract as a consultant, which led to cooperation.

Experiments and demonstrations

Experiment on December 16, 2010

A test of the E-cat reactor was done on December 16, 2010 (apparently in Bologna), but so far no details are known.

Presentation on January 14, 2011

Video of an experiment taking several minutes during a public presentation on January 14, 2011 (Source: Curiosity-Blog)
Temperature curve, with two periods (17 minutes) during which 100°C were reached (reconstructed from video)
Reconstructed superposition of temperature and heating curve. The time difference between the two curves is to be noted, it is a result of a simplification which equates the start of heating with the start of the temperature rise. (an improved diagram is in progress)
Screenshot from a video of the experiment used to estimate its duration
Diagram showing the timeline of electrical heating input during the experiment
Comparison of the shown probe to a HP474AC probe (Image:
Specifications of pump used "LMI P18" (Image:

Andrea Rossi and Sergio Focardi gave a press conference on January 14, 2011 which was not only attended by Italian public television station RAI (RAI 3) and numerous journalists, but also by several physicists employed at universities. Admission was restricted to invited guests. The presentation was done in rooms rented from the company "GM System" in an industrial area of Bologna[33] and not in rooms of Bologna University, as is claimed on various websites. GM Systems has further business ties to Rossi. During this press conference, the function of the reactor was demonstrated for about an hour (55 minutes) in an adjoining room. An analysis of recorded measurement data which can be seen on the screen of a notebook in a Youtube-video for a couple of seconds allow to estimate a period of 15 to 20&nbspminutes(probably 17  minutes), during which a water temperature of 100 degrees or more was achieved. (see picture). The data visible on the notebook were omitted from the report on the experiment (according to physicist Levi, they were "lost"). Later, in June 2011, it became known the data were not actually "lost", Levi was willing to send them to the visiting journalist Steven Krivit. The report also mentions a period of 40 minutes, obviously referring to the entire period including heating up. To calculate the heat output, inadvertent or deliberately incorrect data of water throughput were included, which was in truth less than half of the said amount. The inventors reported the experiment in their blog[34], and published three Youtube videos in Italian language [23], [24], [25].

During the press conference they mentioned a heat input of 600 Watts, at a calculated output of 12,000 Watts (12 kW). However, according to a report published (G. Levi), actual supplied power was 1,022 Watt on average. A further analysis of the data published showed a result of 1,073 Watt.[35] Power used was between 400 and 1,500 W. The inventors calculated their estimate of generated heat from the heated water: 292 grammes of water per minute were heated from 20 °C to 101 °C (allegedly dry vapour) and evaporated. The attending physicists were allowed to take some measurements. They were disappointed, however, as a spectral analysis of the gamma radiation was denied for secrecy reasons. A detailed report submitted by independent physicists from Bologna University stated that no gamma radiation was detected, although the device was supplied with two openings for measurement purposes. Excerpt from the report:

[...] no gamma radiation above the background level in the energy region Eγ > 200 keV has been observed, neither in single counting, not in coincidence;
regardless of the internal details of the reaction chamber, shieldings and other industrial secrets, the γ rates measured with the NaI counters seem not compatible with the rates deduced or expected assuming that the energy production was due to nuclear fusion or decay reactions, as suggested in [1].

Observers were allowed to weigh the hydrogen gas container before and after the experiment (weight: 13,66 kgs). Even considering possible errors in measurement (duct tape still attached), hydrogen usage was estimated at less than one gramme. Not enough to make conventional hydrogen combustion plausible. Link to the report: [26]

Alternative calculation explaining the reported values without cold fusion(Source: unknown author "Ascoli65" from Italian forum

Inconsistencies: Several incomprehensible pieces of information were provided shortly after the experiment. Even weeks later, Rossi's team did not react with a correction. Not only was the duration of the experiment shorter than claimed before at 17 minutes (during which temperature was close to or above 100 degrees), but there is also reason to doubt further claims of inventors and operators of the experiment. The estimate of energy by evaporation of water(phase change) was criticized at "" in retrospect, as respective calculations were made assuming dry vapour without fractions of condensed water, which was not proven. The probe shown in the video can only measure the heat but not relative humidity of the steam. A combined probe of the type HP474AC (Delta Ohm) was claimed to have been used, but the video shows a different probe which looks like an SPC C45 0500 BEX - probe. An HP474AC probe is not visible in any video. The claimed water throughput of 292 ml/min. (= 17.5 liter/h) was doubted too, since the pump used had only half of this capacity according to specification. A pump of the type "LMI P18" had been used, as was confirmed in May 2011 by the Swedish journalist Mats Lewan. Several previous inquiries about the type of pump were not answered by Andrea Rossi.[36]. The manufacturer specifies a maximal flow of 12.1 l/h for the LMI P18.[37] Other models (A/B/C) of LMI pumps can be ruled out, as they definitely look different. Water throughput of these programmable peristaltic pumps can be regulated. The number of strokes per minute and the pumped volume can be regulated separately. The maximal number of strokes is 100 per minute. At 100 strokes/min, maximum throughput will be achieved. In one of the YouTube videos of the presentation on January 14, 2011, pump strokes are clearly audible for 30 seconds.[38] Counting them, 29 or 30  strokes in those thirty seconds can be established. The pump was regulated to 59 to 60 strokes/minute, which corresponds to 60% of maximal flow rate. The heat output calculated by the team is thus 240% higher than the output actually possible using the pump shown in the video, and therefore certainly wrong. These faulty specifications on the average power (1,073 W instead of 600 W) result in an additional grave error of 78%. Assuming just a few percent of condensed water in the vapour would allow to explain the steam generation just by electrical heating. The report on the experiment states that the hydrogen cylinder employed was weighed before and after the test to establish the amount of hydrogen used with a margin of less than a gramme. Regarding the weight of the pressure cylinder, different data are given, but it is said to have been 13.66 kg. Available scales for the given range (for 20/30/60 kg) allow to read weight in steps of 0.1 gramme, but their precision is far less. Possible scales just offer a precision of 0.2 to 0.4 gram.[39]

Undocumented experiment on February 10/11, 2011

On February 10 or 11, 2011, a further "internal test" of the „E-Cat“ was carried out in Bologna, attended by allegedly "independent" physics lecturer Guiseppe Levi from Bologna University. Several internet sources claim the test instead happened on February 18, 2011. Sole witness was physicist Levi, head of a physics faculty research group which received financial grants for their support in the project. Levi was also responsible for the poor quality report regarding the test in January. According to Guiseppe Levi's description, published in a Swedish online article titled "Cold Fusion: 18 hour test excludes combustion"[40], a hose connected the device to a water tap this time in order to cool the "reactor". Tap water was said to have flown through the device at about 1 liter per second and was warmed by 5 degrees (to 15-20 degrees). Obviously this test was done to counter the criticism of test conditions in January. The test was said to have run continuously for 18 hours, a water meter quantified the flow, and the test was monitored by video during the night (this video was never released). The "reactor" was allegedly heated up for ten minutes with 1,250 Watts initially and subsequently only a control unit was supplied with 80 Watts, while an alleged constant thermal performance of 15-20 Kilowatt was established. According to Levi, 0.4 grammes of hydrogen were used in those 18 hours. The same source quotes Levi with the remark he now excluded "chemical energy sources" as heat source:

...Now that I have seen the device work for so many hours, in my view all chemical energy sources are excluded...

The alleged heat output was calculated by supporters of Cold Fusion (LENR Low Energy Nuclear Reactions - CANR Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions) at 270-288 kWh (about one GJ), which was compared to the energy of 26 litres of heating oil.[41] Assuming an average output of 17 kW (the input of electrical energy for pre-heating and control may be neglected) over 18 hours actually renders about 300 kWh, arithmetically speaking. The fuel value of 1 litre of oil is at about 10 kWh[42] so that in terms of figures, an amount of 30 litres may be calculated to produce the same heat quantity.

Since the volume of the visible devices can be estimated, interested parties in the internet (Usenet) tried to find candidates for a known chemical reaction which could be done in the given volume and produce enough heat while disregarding problems like smoke emission, toxicity, costs, and controllability. While a normal chemical reaction can indeed not be ruled out for the first demonstration in January, a replacement candidate for the alleged 18 hour experiment in February could not be found. The volume of the external control unit is said to be about 60 litres, but contained only electronics according to Levi. He estimated the actual reaction chamber at a volume of about 1 litre. The shielding is said to be a layer of 2 cms of lead with an overall weight of 30 kgs.

The placement of the probe, supposed to measure water temperatures during the test, was also criticized. The probe was inserted from outside the "reactor" and might have come into contact with an inner heating resistor which would have rendered an assessment of heat output impossible. Further criticism was targeted at the start temperature which might even have been below the (unknown) room temperature, which even more complicates the interpretation of the data.

Experiment on March 29, 2011

29032011 1.jpg
(with claimed working conditions)
Comparison of different heating curves

A six-hours' presentation was performed in Bologna on March 29, 2011, attended by the invited Swedish physicists Sven Kullander and Hanno Essén. Both had traveled from Sweden at the invitation of Rossi, travel expenses were paid by Rossi. Due to "stability reasons", a smaller "energy catalyzer" with lesser output was used, and is said to have yielded 25 kWh within 6 hours with a thermal output of 4.4 kW. The same pump as in January, the LMII P18, was used in this presentation, but this time the capacity was compatible with the maximum flow capacity specified by manufacturers and therefore probable. Water throughput was stated at 6.27 kg/h (104 ml/min). As in the experiment in January, water was evaporated, but without measuring relative humidity of the vapour, errors in measurement of up to 600% may occur. It is also impossible to establish in retrospect whether the water was evaporated completely, since the warm water drain was placed next to the steam port. The assembly was filled with 50 grammes of nickel powder. Initially, hydrogen gas was pumped into the device at 25 bar but without previously pumping air out. Quote: The air of atmospheric pressure remained in the container as a small impurity. (Note: If oxygen from the air stayed inside - as claimed -, water could have formed, since nickel powder acts as a catalyst). Heating was done at 300 Watt.[43][44][45] During the presentation, insulation and lead shielding were removed from some E-cats displayed, but not from the E-cat used. Attending Giuseppe Levi made photos which were published in Italian and Swedish blogs. The Swedish observers wrote a report also published in internet blogs. In their report[22], they excluded a conventional chemical reaction:

Any chemical process should be ruled out for producing 25 kWh from whatever is in a 50 cubic centimeter container. The only alternative explanation is that there is some kind of a nuclear process that gives rise to the measured energy production.

Observers invited were allowed to examine two material samples in advance: the nickel powder and "spent" nickel powder from an experiment which previously had been run for 2 and a half months. Rossi delivered the samples during a visit to Sweden. According to an analysis performed at the Ångström Laboratory (Ångströmlaboratoriet) of Uppsala University, the used sample contained 10% copper and 11% iron. Surprisingly, the isotope ratio of nickel and copper (isotope 63 and isotope 65) was equal to the natural isotopic composition.

Both measurements show that the pure nickel powder contains mainly nickel, and the used powder is different in that several elements are present, mainly 10 percent copper and 11 percent iron. The isotopic analysis through ICP-MS doesn’t show any deviation from the natural isotopic composition of nickel and copper.

The ratios specified were: Cu-63 70%, Cu-65 30%. Professor Sven Kullander commented such a result as extremely unlikely:

If this reaction chain would be true even though none of the responses that I mention can be made with the knowledge we have today, then isotopic distribution Cu-63/Cu-65 be greater than 80/20, probably closer to 99/01.[46]

The natural isotope ratio of 63Cu to 65Cu is 2.24 (69.17% to 30.83%). Focardi had previously claimed the copper isotope ratio would be reduced to 1.6 by "fusion".[47] While there are further copper isotopes, these are unstable and are not found in nature (69,17 + 30,83 = 100).

It is not only statistically (almost) impossible that, after an alleged fusion reaction with copper as a fusion product, a "used" sample will show the same isotope ratio as found in nature. Further considerations on sample analysis expose insurmountable obstacles to the possibility of fusion:
In theory, the stable copper isotopes 63Cu and 65Cu might be a result of fusion of hydrogen and nickel isotopes 62Ni and 64Ni (add one proton each). But according to the Swedish Institute having analysed the samples, the unused nickel sample only contained 4.5% in sum of these stable nickel isotopes. Assuming all nickel 62 and nickel 64 atoms had been fused (which is unlikely) with a proton (hydrogen nucleus), the amount of copper would not amount to even 10% of the resulting mass. Even an alternative reaction chain with unstable isotopes is impossible based on the measured isotope ratios and the absence of radiation. It would be possible to assume nickel 58 as a starting isotope which would become copper 59 and decay to nickel 59 which in turn would become copper 60 and decay to nickel 60 which would fuse to copper 61, decay to nickel 61 and fuse to copper 62 and decay to nickel 62. In the end stable copper 63 would be formed. But this would necessitate a completely different copper isotope ratio then found in the analysis.

Experiments in April 2011

Temperature graph and alleged working conditions of the test on April 19
Two heating resistors switched on (9/3)
Temperature graph and alleged working conditions of the test on April 28
Possible concealed adjustment of heating by Rossi during the experiment

On April 19 and April 28, the E-Cat was presented to Swedish journalist Mats Lewan (Nyteknik journal). To measure the energy produced, water was heated and, at an input of just 300 Watts, allegedly several litres of water evaporated. Rossi estimated the heating output at more than 2 kW. A regular publication of the results did not happen. Lewan, thrilled by the invention, published details only on a few websites ([27] [28]). A short video of the experiment on April 28, 2011 is available.[48] The dosimetric pump LMI P18 was used once more. Water throughput was specified with 63-69 ml/min this time, a value which is possible according to manufacturers' specifications. Stroke frequency was 32/min. With a stroke-volume of 2 ml (maximum), the throughput is 64 ml/min, a value which corresponds exactly to the values established by other measurements during the experiment. The weight of the pumped water was measured several times as it flowed through the device within a determinated period of time. Since the supplied electrical heating power of 315 Watt was just measured once at startup with a pliers ammeter, it remains unclear whether the heating input was constant. When journalist Lewan went into an adjoining room and did a pan shot with his video camera, Rossi was seen tampering with the heating regulation. It is therefore unclear whether the input remained constant during the experiment. The American journalist Krivit created a video at the end of July 2011, that comments on cuts from the video by Mats Lewan: [29]

A further experiment allegedly planned for April 21, 2011[49], allowing Swedish scientists Sven Kullander and Hanno Essén of Uppsala University to test the E-Cat, was later denied by Rossi.[50]

Presentation on June 14, 2011

Experiments on June 14, 2011 (image: blog of Daniele Passerini)
Current measurement: 3,5 A (805 W). (image: blog of Daniele Passerini)
Steven B. Krivit (left) and Andrea Rossi (image: blog of Daniele Passerini)
Pump settings on June 14, 2011 (image: blog of Daniele Passerini)
Datasheet of the pump model (LMI [16])
Steam outlet to drain (Picture: S.B. Krivit)
White Steam against a dark backround at hose outlet (Picture: S.B. Krivit)
Cooling water temperature curve
RF14062011 KV3.jpg

On June 14, 2011 a further demonstration of four E-cat devices took place in Bologna. The U.S. publisher of "New Energy Times", Steven B. Krivit was invited. Krivit and other visitors were allowed to take pictures and follow the measurements during the presentation. As before, the actual reactor was not allowed to be inspected. Krivit conducted several video interviews with Andrea Rossi, Sergio Focardi, and the physicist Guiseppe Levi.

According to information from an Italian blog, the ECat was connected to a control unit by two power cables. The power taken from the main supply was 805 Watt (230 V / 3.5 A). According to Rossi, heating power was just 748 W, but he falsely assumes a voltage of 220 V (220 x 3,4 A = 748 W). Voltage in Italy has been 230 V for 10 years now. A voltage of more than 230 V was measured in the showrooms several times. Rossi specified the entire heating output of the reactor at 5 kW, which would correspond to an "energy efficiency" of 6.7 times the input.

At an ambient temperature of 31.8 degrees Celsius, water with a temperature of 26.5 degrees had been heated to 100,1 degrees using the LMI pump already known, and all water was evaporated. Rossi once more claims the same improbable value for water flow of 7 kg/h(117 gr/min, 1.94 gr/s). Watching a video taken by observer Steven Krivit, however, shows that pump frequency was about 20-24 strokes/min.[51] Thus water flow had to be below 48 grams per minute (or 0.8g/s, 2.88 kg/h). In a picture taken by observer Passerini, a pumping rate of 40 is visible (80 ml/min, 1.33 ml/s, 4.8 l/h). It remains unclear, however, whether the picture was taken during the experiment. The temperature curve of the cooling water cannot be brought into a meaningful relationship to the claimed flow rate of 7kg/h: Cooling water comes from a water canister with a temperature sensor of about 25 cms length plugged in from the top. When the water is pumped away, the probe gets out of the water and takes up air temperature quickly. A screenshot of the temperature curve on the notebook shows that quite a lot of water was drained during the first half of the day, so that the probe hung in the air soon. In the afternoon water flow apparently was throttled. For at least three hours the probe was in water(about 12:00 to 15:00). This means that during these three hours, 9 liters of water (calculated from the dimensions of the canister and the length of the probe) were drained at most, which would be about 3 liters per hour and correspond to the calculated value from the audible stroke frequency of the pump. To get to 7 liters/h, someone would have had to secretly pour 4 liters of water with 26.5 degrees into the canister. Adding colder tap water would have shown in the temperature curve.

Krivit published a disappointing preliminary report three days later.[52] According to his preliminary report, the steam outlet was not visible and ended directly in a drain. Only when a black hose was removed from the drain (Rossi was careful to lift the hose to let any water in the hose run down the drain), "white steam" could be seen exiting the hose. 100 % dry steam is invisible, white steam is a sign of condensed water droplets.

According to the summary by Krivit, the scientific details provided by the E-Cat trio have been highly deficient and have not enabled the public to make an objective evaluation. The Essen/Kullander report, too, had ..significant weakness in its presentation of data and calculations and is highly constrained by the methodology dictated and instrumentation provided by the E-Cat trio. According to Krivit, he is not sure if Levi did understand the potential impact of confirmation of dry vapour. Krivit advised Levi to rework his controversial report of January 21, 2011 and asked for original raw data measured by chemist Galantini during the experiment on January 14, 2011, which allegedly confirmed dry vapour in that experiment. A fierce dispute broke out between Krivit and Levi over these data. Levi is said to have agreed to send him the "Galantini Data". The "Galantini data" are, however, just a set of e-mails from a chemist who is claimed to have done measurements.[53] It is apparent from the e-mails that the commisioned chemist Gilberto Galantini used an unsuitable meter for the problem at hand. Galantini measured a relative humidity of allegedly 100.1 degrees Celsius hot steam with a probe(HP474AC) to determine the relative humidity in the air. The real question, however, deals with the distinction between water vapor and dry vapor.

Swedish physicist Peter Ekström of Lund University presented calculations based on Krivit's video and came to a devastatingly negative result which can be read on the internet.[54] According to his calculations, a powerful jet of steam should have left the hose but that did not happen.

After Krivit's report had been published, inventor Andrea Rossi responded very irritated and obviously angry with the visitor invited by him, the "Clown" Krivit, whom he also called a "snake".[55] According to Rossi, the vistior had "understood nothing" and written a "ridiculous" report. He also accused Krivit of having been "sent by someone that wants to dwarf our work". Furthermore, he had tried to blackmail physicist Levi who has already given this to his attorney:

..Probably this journalist has been sent by someone that wants to dwarf our work. He also tried to blackmail prof. Levi, and Levi already has given to his attorney due. information..[56]

Physicist Levi responded with an open letter in clumsy English to Krivit, in which he accused him of not having understood his explanations. Also Krivit had not understood that the water content in the steam was measured as a ration of the masses involved.[57]

Presentation on Juli 8,2011

On Juli 8th a visitor named Julian Brown was allowed to see a working reactor in Bologna for a brief time. He reported about it in a blog called "ecatnews" and stated that Rossi was assuming a cooling water flow of 15 liters per hour.[58] He saw, however, the already known pump of LMI company and estimated a cooling water flow of only 3 liters/h himself.[59]

Presentation on September 7,2011

On September 7th 2011 a further test was attended by Mats Lewan of Ny Teknik. A newer, bigger model of the E-cat, with measurements of 50 x 60 x 30 centimeters and a weight of 80 kg (without water) was used. This model is said to be used in a 1 Megawatt plant in USA. The E-Cat was preheated for 90 minutes with 2.6 kilowatt electrical energy. Then it run without external energy supply for 35 minutes. Again, steam quality was not measured. The temperature inside of the E-cat was specified as 130 degrees but it remains unclear if this was steam temperature. Pressure uf one atmosphere was assumed.[60] At drainage a steady flow of water can be seen, Mats Lewan report mentions 5.0 to 6.5 kg/hour. Considering these assumptions Mats Lewan estimates the output to 3.5 to 8 kilowatt.[61]

Critics observe, that again steam quality was not measured. In contradiction to previous contrary claims it was obvious in this test that the steam was not dry and that several litres went down the drainage. The calculations of Mats Lewan are based on several assumptions that were not measured. If the drainage was smaller than the intake, pressure might have been far higher which would explain the rising temperature after deactivation of the heater. Raising the pressure would lead to a further increase in temperature.[62]

Presentation on October 6,2011

The test on October 6th 2011 was again attended by Mats Lewan and other scientists. Again, the new E-cat model was used, this time it measured 50 x 60 x 35 centimeters and weighted 98 kg.

According to Lewan the alleged reactor was heated for 4 hours with 2.7 kilowatt (38,88 Megajoule), then it ran for 3.5 hours "selfsustained" and produced 2.5 kilowatt output (31.5 Megajoule). During this "selfsustained" phase of 3.5 hours further 115 watt were fed into it(1.44 Megajoule).[63][64]

Mats Lewan states explicitly that he did not measure the net energy, just the gross energy production in the 3.5 hours. A possible energy drain during the heating phase was not measured and can be considered irrelevant.[65]

Stephen Krivit criticizes, that the energy that was supploed during the test run was disregarded in the calculation. In sum, an energy loss of (38,88 + 1,44 - 31,5 = 8,82) 8.82 Megajoule, a result, equivalent to a water boiler with 78% efficiency can be seen.[66]

In the report a device that produces "frequencies" is mentioned to be activated at the start of the test. Such a device was not mentioned in previous tests. Rossi stated later, that this "frequency generator is the mysterious secret "catalyst".[67]

Attempts to replicate the experiments

  • In 1996, a group led by Antonino Zichichi in vain attempted to repeat the pre-Rossi Piantelli-experiment (identical in principle, except for the secret catalyst) at CERN in Geneva for one year. Authors mention established increases in temperature which, however, did not correspond to an increase in energy release:
The authors state, "We have found the [Piantelli-Focardi group’s] results to be consistent with our observations; namely we measured higher temperatures for the same input power when hydrogen is absorbed during a heating cycle. Nevertheless this temperature rise does not appear to correspond to an increase in heat production. We have added a temperature sensor to the container of the experiment. The temperature of the container follows the same temperature with input power curve irrespective of whether there is an anomalous absorption of hydrogen or not; therefore we have no evidence that this temperature increase corresponds to another source of heat. In conclusion, we have observed all the effects discovered by Focardi et al., but our results imply that there is no production of power associated with the absorption of hydrogen by nickel."[68]
  • In 1998/1999, a further attempt to replicate the tests of the principle was carried out by scientists Luigi Nosenzo and Luigi Cattaneo in Pavia (Italy). Again, no fusion reaction or release of energy could be established over the course of several months.[69]
  • In May 2011, US physicist Brian Ahern reported tests with a finely ground zirconium-nickel-copper alloy to which he added hydrogen gas after heating it to 500 degrees. A small rise in heat in addition to the supplied electrical heating power was observed and estimated at about 5-10 watts. A publication of the experiment is not known. Ahern's claims were only published in various blogs. Ahern has been known for a long-standing supporter of "cold fusion" which he attempts to use with a company he founded, Vibronic Energy Technologies Corp. [70][71][72]


Zr-Ni-Cu alloy performance Ames National Laboratory processed metal alloy foils via arc melting followed by melt spinning. This is the Yamaura process employed by Arata and others. The foils were baked in ordinary air at 445C for 28 hours. The brittle, oxidized foils were placed in a tumble mill for 24 hours. This resulted in 30 grams of black powder with a median grain size of about 40 microns.Presumably, each grain has about one million nanoscale islands of NiCu inside. The 30 grams occupies about 7 ml inside the 50 ml dewar. The system was vacuum baked at 220C for 24 hours and cooled to room temperature. H2 gas was added at 200psi. The pressure dropped only to about 185 psi over twenty minutes. In these replication experiments the exothermic reactions have had peak temperatures above 220C with substantial loading above 3.0 H/M ratios. This time the temperature only rose by 2 degrees C. The system was heated with a band heater to high temperature. There was no controller. A rheostat was set at an arbitrary position and the system comes to a an arbitrary temperature.The average power input was 90 watts. After several hours the hydrated system was evacuated overnight at a constant high temperature at 530C. The next day H2 gas was again added at 100psi and the temperature rose by 40C to 570C and came back down to 530C after two hours. At the end of the day the dewar was again evacuated while still at 530C overnight. The third day repeated the same procedure. H2 gas was added at 100psi and the temperature rose by 44C to 574C. However, this time it did not come back to the initial temperature. It remained at the elevated temperature overnight. On the fourth day H2 gas was again added at 100psi and the system rose by 50C to 580C and again stayed at the elevated temperature indefinitely. A rough calibration suggests that the 30 grams of hydrated nanopowder is putting out 5 watts of excess power. Yesterday Peter Gluck suggested that the relationship between loading and excess power may be a myth. This seemed to be true for electrolysis with Pd and heavy water where loading levels exceeding 0.9 D/M were a prerequisite for observing excess power. My loading level with this nanopowder sample as less than 0.1 H/M. This 5 watt excess is very much less than Rossi, but it is a real and repeatable experiment There was no radiation above the background level. Other alloys from Ames NL are expected within ten days.</ref>

Inventor Andrea Rossi

Andrea Rossi at Petroldragon lawsuit (Source: newspaper L'Unita")
Reimbursement offer of diploma mill "Kensington University Inc." to its customers
Rossi CV on his website (March 4, 2011)
View of a Petroldragon compound (Source: newspaper L'Unita")
Andrea Rossi in front of Petroldragon reactor (Source: newspaper L'Unita")
Petrol Dragon premises at Airuno with tanks for used oil (Image: merate online [17])

Italian inventor Andrea Rossi was born on June 3, 1950 in Milano. In a curriculum vitae presenting his occupational history on his website[74] (see picture on the right dated March 4, 2011), Rossi specifies he graduated in philosophy at the University of Milan and mentions a second "Laurea" title (common term for a final degree at an Italian university with an obligatory doctorate) in "Ingegneria Chimica" (chemical engineering) at a Californian "Kensington University Inc.". This company was officially registered in Hawaii, but operated from Glendale in California[75] and was a wellknown diploma mill until it was shut down on court orders.[76][77][78]. The company was sentenced to restitute all former customers (see picture to the left) after it had been reported to the law by a consumer protection organisation.[79]

In March 2011, Andrea Rossi was confronted by a journalist who accused him of holding an engineering title from a diploma mill. Rossi replied this was an honorary title awarded to him for an earlier patent regarding bio fuel. He claimed he did not know anything about the company "Kensington University Inc.". He explained he had a regular title, Dottore Magistrale in Filosofia, of Università degli Studi di Milano from December 10, 1975[80]

The "Rossi Energy Amplifier" is not the first invention made by Andrea Rossi. During the 1970ies and 1980ies, he tried to produce hydrocarbons from waste to no avail. This resulted in several law suits and criminal cases with prison sentences against the "Sheik of Brianza" (Sceicco della Brianza, sheik because he claimed to produce oil from industrial waste. Brianza is a region north of Milan). The law suits were also known as "Petroldragon affair", since Rossi's company was named "Petroldragon". Italian Wikipedia has an article on the affair: Petroldragon. Rossi was convicted because he did not dispose of large amounts (58,000 tons) of toxic waste in accordance with regulations, and for trafficking waste materials. According to an article in Italian newspaper "Corriere della Sera" of April 6, 1995, Rossi and one Michele Pizzato were arrested twice.[81] As a member of a "gang" and "criminal organisation" he is said to have smuggled two tons of gold in a money laundering operation. Newspaper articles from that time (in Italian): [82][83][84][85][86][87]

Rossi, however, perceived this as a repression of his allegedly ecological conversion technology. He migrated to USA after a series of criminal proceedings. Current business interests (EON srl and EFA srl) are handled by his wife Maddalena Pascucci.

Involved companies

EON Srl and Leonardo Corporation

Apartment-house at the address of "Leonardo Corp." (1331, Lincoln rd Miami Beach, App. 505). Image: Google street view
Registration of "Leonardo Corp." in Miami Beach
Registration page 2

The company EON Srl (owned by Rossi), which is often mentioned in connection with the subject, is registered both in Bondeno[88] and in Rome[89] . The Bodeno location is said to have been heated by an "E-cat" device virtually for free for a long time. Rossi further claims he is also producing hot water in his home with an E-cat. There is no independent evidence for both claims.

In the course of 2011, inventors and undisclosed non-Italian investors (allegedly Greek) plan to offer ready-made reactors for industrial application under the marketing name "Hyperion" (not to confuse with a concept for small fission reactors of the same name in the USA). There is an official permission dating from 2006 which enables Italian EON Srl to operate a small power plant, fuelled by bio diesel, producing electric power up to 1 megawatt in the town of Bondero. Inventors also claim to currently work on a small power plant which combines 120 interconnected energy-amplifier reactors of equal electric power of 1,000 kWs either in Greece or in USA, which is supposed to be finished by October 2011 and will cost 2 million dollar. Greek company „Defkalion Green Technologies S.A.“ is mentioned as manufacterers.

There is a Leonardo Corporation[90] located in Bedford, New Hampshire, USA owned by Rossi which is listed as contact address for EON. Their e-mail address is identical with that of EON Srl in Italy. The phone number is a collective number applying to several companies located at the same address which is a so called "business park". This company and Greek Defkalion are supposed to build the future "reactors". It currently offers electric generators fuelled by bio diesel (with turbo chargers and intercooling). The company claims a high degree of efficiency due to its patented "EON" technology which was able to recover incurred thermal losses. In a business entry from 2012 an address in New Boston is mentioned for Leonardo Corporation.[91]

Leonardo Corp. is registered in Miami (Florida), too, in an appartment in a block situated in a residential area. The telephone number (603) 4875192, however, belongs to an extension in New Hampshire. It is somewhat hard to imagine that production of a Rossi Energy Catalyzer was possible at any of these addresses, let alone building a 1 MW power plant.

In June 2011, U.S. attorney David Niebauer from San Francisco added an entry to his blog, reporting he had met with Rossi. Rossi explained he was still looking for a partner to realize a 1 MW small power plant in the United States. He claimed to have offered a demonstration to NASA, but only if they agree to purchase an operating plant once his device obtained the expected efficiency.[92]

EFA srl

Italian company EFA srl, based in Bologna[93], is a company of limited liability and run by Rossi's wife Maddalena Pascucci who holds 70% of its shares. A minority stake is held by a business consultant by the name of Giuliano Guandalini who had previous business connections to Rossi. EFA also owns distribution rights for Europe and is a contractual partner both for Bologna University (as of June 2011, the contract was not signed) and Defkalion.

The same premises housing EFA – Via Marsili 4, Bologna – are also residence of a company Systems GM 2000th (Giuliano Guandalini) owning the rooms in which Rossi happens to conduct his experiments.

Leonardo Technologies Inc.

Thermoelectric miracle device of LTI

Leonardo Technologies Inc. (LTI) is another company registered in USA co-founded by Rossi[94]. However, he sold it at the end of the 1990s. LTI in Manchester (NH/USA) tried to develop thermoelectric modules with miraculous degrees of efficiency. Such elements work due to thermoelectric effects (see also thermoelectric cooling, enabling them to convert temperature differences to electrical voltage. Voltage is very low but through serial circuits higher voltage can be achieved. Efficiency is known to be very low. It ranges between 2 and 4 percent and useful applications are limited to special needs ("plutonium cells", satellite supply without sun collectors). Such converters would be of commercial interest only if efficiencies beyond 15% were achieved. LIT claimed it was able to realize thermoelectric modules (TE-devices) with a 20% efficiency. They further claimed they were able to build big converters with a capacity of several kilowatts. A collaboration with the university of New Hampshire was agreed upon. A device with 1 A and 100 volt (100 watt) was presented. Rossi later continued his research in Italy. The American Department of Defense showed some interest, had the company CTC (in Johnstown, PA) test several devices of LIT and released a test protocol[95]. The modules did not prove to be very reliable Out of 27 devices, only eight worked at all. Instead of 800 to 1,000 watt claimed, they only produced 1  Watt of power. Further problems were thermal expansion and contact issues. Other modules sent later did not produce more power than regular devices commercially available.

On the website a personnel list was published in November 2011: (now deleted) Personnel
Ing. Andrea A. Rossi, Inventor
Prof. Sergio Focardi (INFN – University of Bologna – Italy) Prof. Giuseppe Levi (INFN – University of Bologna – Italy) Prof. Stremmenos Christos (Athen University – Greece) Prof. Alberto Carnera (INFM – University of Padova – Italy) Prof. Pierluca Rossi (University of Bologna – Italy) Prof. Luciana Malferrari (University of Bologna – Italy) Prof. George Kelly (University of New Hampshire – USA) Sterling D. Allan, Advisor, webmaster Hank Mills, Web content


Coldstream Park Office Park (Image: NAI Norwood Group, Bedford NH [18])

US startup company AmpEnergo Inc., founded on April 20, 2009 in Bedford, New Hampshire[97][98] (Website: [30]) signed a contract with inventor Andrea Rossi in March 2011. While "Leonardo Corp." is to build the energy catalyzers, marketing is planned to be done through AmpEnergo. According to Swedish journal Nyteknik, Rossi received a fincancial grant from this company.[99] According to information from the press, AmpEnergo is currently looking for inventors. The address of AmpEnergo is "Coldstream Park Office Park" owned by real estate company NAI Norwood[100]. According to owners, the building is heated with an electrically operated heat pump. The address is identical with that of real estate company NAI Norwood Group and of Norwood Management Karl Norwood Inc., owned by real estate agent Karl Norwood.[101][102] and also of Leonardo Corp. and Leonardo Technologies Inc.[103] owned by Andrea Rossi. The phone numbers of all those companies are identical too ( (603) 668 7000). Despite having been founded in 2009 already , no phone number is known for AmpEnergo Inc. The company is not registered in any phone book or yellow pages in the USA. (as of May 2011)

Defkalion Green Technologies

Defkalion logo.jpg
Defkalion Management
Alexandros Xanthoulis (born 1954), vice president. Xanthoulis also represents Cypriot PRAXEN Defkalion Green Technologies Ltd.
David Christian Aurel (born 1969), Managing Director. Aurel is also CEO of Invest Bank Montenegro
Inventor Rossi with Hauard Chen of "China Research Center for Public Policy"
Citation: The science behind the Ecat increases the probability of particles overcoming the electrostatic potential Coulom barriers in order to penetrate the nucleus by the quantum mechanical tunneling effect, yielding in an exothermic reaction between Hydrigen and Nickel. By decreasing the surface upon which a given amount of pressure is exerted, the odds for the tunneling effect to occur are increased, allowing für higher penetrability of the Coulomb barrier. (Website Defkalion 24.06.2011)

There is a small startup company in Athens named "Defkalion Energy" resp. "Defkalion Green Technologies S.A."[104][105] (named after Deucalion, son of Prometheus in Greek mythology), owned by various investors who, according to Rossi, shall produce some of the energy catalyzers. However, at the end of July 2011 it came to a dispute and to the end of the collaboration. Rossi announced that he would sue Defkalion.

The owners of Defkalion are unknown, but are accordng to Defkalion mostly Greeks with current residence in Canada (64% shareholders) and from Middle Eastern countries Defkalion's major shareholder is a PRAXEN Ltd. based in Limassol (Cyprus).


Cyprus-based PRAXEN Ltd., connected to Defkalion vice-president Alexandros Xanthoulis, is in a position to keep its shareholders anonymous according to Cypriot law. Andrea Rossi's wife Maddalena Pascucci seems to focus on controlling the commercial aspects of the business in energy catalyzers. She is a director of Italian EFA srl which has business connections to PRAXEN Defkalion Green Technologies Ltd. [107]

While Rossi's "Leonardo Corp." will handle business in USA, Greek company Defkalion was said to hold the license for sales in Greece and the Balkans and was probably to be in charge of worldwide business(except USA). In August 2011 Rossi announced that Defkalion has no rights to his inventions anymore. According to Greek journal "Investor's World", premises of a former factory in the town of Xanthi have been bought, on which a 1 MW-small power station equipped with Rossi's energy catalyzers is supposed to be built; these premises will manufacture energy catalyzers in future. A total of three plants is to be built in Xanthi. The same source claims that Defkalion must be regarded a "200 million Euro investment". Half of the investment money (about 100 millions) is said to go to inventor Rossi later.[27][28][29] According to Rossi he will start with the production of his E-cat devices, even if the filed patent won't be granted. He also wants to continue production even if competitors understand his invention through reverse-engeneering.[108] According to press information, Defkalion intends to begin producing E-cats in 2012, at an annual production of 300,000 devices. During the first year, however, only 40,000 units were to be produced. Between 125 and 200 new jobs were to be created in Xanthi. It was claimed in June 2011 that the investment sum was 300-400 million euro.[109]

The business model of Defkalion allows long-time leasing of "E-Cat" devices to private clients. A 10 kW or 20 kW facility (information is ambiguous) is said to cost 1,300 Euro per year, including operational costs and "fuel replacement", handled by manufacturers through replacing the device.

At a press conference on June 23, 2011[110] it was reported that contacts were established to a "China Research Center for Public Policy", whose representative Hauard Chen attented the press conference. Further attendees were politicians from the German Green Party as well as representatives of the Baden Wuerttemberg state government. These informations are established in several Greek newspapers.[111][112][113] As a single name one René Ramminger was mentioned, maybe speaker of Berlin "AG Soziales & Arbeit KV Tempelhof-Schöneberg" of "Bündnis90/Die Grünen"/Berlin.

While the website of EON Srl has been "under construction" for months now, the page of Defkalion offered since the press conference at the end of June a contact address in Athens.[114], later, in Juli 2011 an Address in Glifada was mentioned.[115] Furthermore future E-Cats with 5-30 kW are promoted on the website as "products" but no prices are available. A „Defkalion white paper“ was shown which states some details on Rossi-reactors. English observers found numerous mistakes and errors in used units of size (Examples:.. Power consumption: "0.5kw/hr", ‚"Series C Hyperion 20kW product can generate up to 157 Mw in one year of operation"..). This text disappeared immediately from the website. Defkalion stated the alleged functional principle as:

"The science behind the Ecat increases the probability of particles overcoming the electrostatic potential Coulom barriers in order to penetrate the nucleus by the quantum mechanical tunneling effect, yielding in an exothermic reaction between Hydrigen and Nickel. By decreasing the surface upon which a given amount of pressure is exerted, the odds for the tunneling effect to occur are increased, allowing für higher penetrability of the Coulomb barrier.

it was also declared by Defkalion that by "pressure increase" (apparently based on hydrogen) the output of the reactor could be controlled.

Transaltec AG

Adolf Schneider (right, Transaltec AG) with wife and Andrea Rossi. Picture: [19])

It became known end of 2011, that the swiss company TransAltec AG of Adolf Schneider tries to sell the E-cat.[116]

Pure Energy Systems Network Inc.

Sterling Allan (right, company Pure Energy Systems Network Inc.) and Ecat-inventor Andrea Rossi

The company Pure Energy Systems Network Inc. of Sterling Allan is also doing business with Andrea Rossi. According to "New Energy Times" owner Allan is a paid "sales agent" to market Rossis E-cat. It became also known that Allen is paid for publications and "news stories" about the E-cat. Allen is webmaster of the internet site of Leonardo Corporation in Bedford (New Hampshire/USA) since 2011.

Funding and former Cooperation with Bologna University

Rossi declares to have spent 500,000 Euro on experiments with more than 1,000 E-cat reactors, financed e.g. with earnings from his previous company Petroldragon which supplied him with revenues of as much as one million Euro. In an interview in Italian television on April 18, 2011, Rossi declared he had not received any pre-delivery payments or payments at all from customers. Rossi only meant to earn revenue or license fees when sales commenced. In contrast to that, it became known in May 2011 Rossi had already concluded a contract with the company AmpEnergo and payments had been made.

The University of Bologna had agreed to a collaboration, the Faculty of Physics should have received Euro 500,000 from Rossi in order to support development. According to other sources the faculty received as much as 1 million Euro. The research unit is said to consist of the following persons: Ennio Bonetti, Enrico Campari, Loris Ferrari, Giuseppe Levi, and Mauro Villa. Physicist Giuseppe Levi is said to be heading these activities.[117]

Rossi means to donate part of the revenue for children suffering from cancer:

The 500,000 Euros I am paying to the University of Bologna is my last money, but when I deliver the one-megawatt plant to Defkalion I get cash back. From then on, 50% will be used for expansion and 50% to treat children with cancer. I will personally look for the children whose families cannot afford their care [...][118]

In January 2012 it became known that the University of Bologna cancelled the planned agreement since Rossi did not pay the agreed sums to the university.[119][120][121]

Journal of Nuclear Physics


Rossi spreads claims about his inventions through his own Internet blog called "Journal of Nuclear Physics", which is claimed to be "peer-reviewed". From its subtitle „Nuclear experiments blog“, however, it is obvious this is no professional journal. "Journal of Nuclear Physics" used to be the title of a Russian professional journal, which was discontinued. An Article article in Wikipedia lists all journals of this name.

The website of the blog lists a "Board of Advisers" which currently (April 2011) lists 8 names: Prof. Sergio Focardi (INFN – University of Bologna – Italy), Prof. Michael Melich (DOD – USA), Prof. Alberto Carnera (INFM – University of Padova – Italy), Prof. Pierluca Rossi (University of Bologna – Italy), Prof. Luciana Malferrari (University of Bologna – Italy), Prof. George Kelly (University of New Hampshire – USA), Prof. Stremmenos Christos (Bologna University – Italy) und Richard Noceti, Ph.D. ([122] It is peculiar that several of the persons come from the circle of inventors. With some of these persons, it is not evident what may qualify them for questions of physics. George Kelly is apparently not working for the University of New Hampshire; it is unclear whether he exists in the first place. An American psychologist of the same name has already died. Michael Melich, who allegedly works for the "DOD" (U.S. Defense Department), received some attention due to weird statements. He claims to be working as kind of an undercover agent for a US secret service to whom he claims to report activities of the cold fusion scene. Guiseppe Levi, who was listed originally as an advisor, was deleted from the list at the end of January 2011 (see screenshots).

The blog also allows adding comments. But various person reported in the internet that only comments or questions not criticizing or doubting the "E-cat" will be published.

Business competition

In competition to the Rossi Ecat-reactor is a similar "energy reactor" of the Italian physicist Francesco Piantelli, who has founded a company "NichEnergy S.R.L." .[123][124] To date (July 2011) no useful reputable publications for this project exist. According to vague details, which can be found in the Internet, inventor Piantelli claims an "energy multiplication" by a factor of 200. In contrast to the Rossi reactor no so called catalyst is said to be used.

Patents and patent applications

Drawing from patent application WO 2009/125444 von Rossi

Rossi has applied for a patent(WO 2009/125444 A1 EP 02259998 A1) for the method.[125][126] The European Patent Office, as one of the International Searching Authorities of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), negatively assessed the patent specification. It criticized the invention was not presented comprehensively, and particularly that it was not evident the described reaction of nickel and hydrogen did in fact generate energy. To quote the report:

As the invention seems, at least at first, to offend against the generally accepted laws of physics and established theories, the disclosure should be detailed enough to prove to a skilled person conversant with mainstream science and technology that the invention is indeed feasible. [...] In the present case, the invention does not provide experimental evidence (nor any firm theoretical basis) which would enable the skilled person to assess the viability of the invention. The description is essentially based on general statement and speculations which are not apt to provide a clear and exhaustive technical teaching.[127]

The Italian patent of the same content was granted in April 2011 with the number IT MI20080629 (processo ed apparecchiatura per ottenere reazioni esotermiche, in particolare da nickel ed idrogeno.).[128][129] The wording of the patent is not publically accessible and, due to reasons of secrecy, will be published at a later date.

Patent applications are required to allow experts to rebuild the described invention. Furthermore the "best method" to achieve the presented effect has to be described in the application. Rossi, however, keeps the nature of his "catalyzers" secret.

The WIPO website lists an answer of Rossi's patent attorney Cicogna dated December 17, 2010 in which he addressed the issues mentioned.[130] In his answer to the Munich European patent agency, he drops 6 of formerly 15 claims. The correspondence also addresses a patent from 2005 (Yoshiaki Arata: (Juli 2005) Hydrogen condensate and method of generating heat therewith., EP1551032 [31]) held by Japanese professor emeritus Yoshiaki Arata who has been studying "cold fusion" since 1989. In his patent, Arata described methods to generate an "Arata Energy" with hydrogen isotopes which permeate finely ground metals (metal nano-ultrafine particle ; Arata mentions several metals, among them nickel) or alloys under energy consumption. This process is said to create a "condensate" with a decreased interatomic distance between hydrogen isotopes, explaining the emission of heat. A byproduct of the reaction was helium. According to Arata, there are several ways to apply energy: pressure, ultrasound, high electricity, laser light, magnetism, etc. Arata introduced his reactor, equipped with a Stirling engine, to the public in May 2008[131], but explained that the principle could not be applied since helium generation "poisoned" the fusion process, so the fusion chamber had to be vented periodically, rendering any utilization uneconomical.

A patent application with the number US2011/005506 A1 was submitted by Rossi on September 16, 2010 in USA and released on January 13, 2011 by the patent office. The application does not mention cold fusion but a device to create an exothermic reaction with nickel and hydrogen. As of September 2011 no assessment of the U.S. patent office is known.[132]

Patents held by Francesco Piantelli:

  • WO 95 20816 A1, Francesco Piantelli: Energy generation and Generator by means of anharmonic stimulated fusion
  • EP 0767962 B1 (1995), Piantelli, F., Energy Generation and Generator by Means of Anharmonic Stimulated Fusion. Patent
  • DE69510056T2 Energieerzeugung Und Erzeuger Durch Oberwellenfreie Stimulierte Fusion, 03/02/2000
  • patent application PI2011A000046 (Italy) from April 26, 2011: metodo e apparato per generare energia mediante reazioni nucleari di idrogeno adsorbito per cattura orbitale da una nanostruttura cristallina di un metallo. (patent application Method and Apparatus for Generating Energy through Nuclear Reactions of Hydrogen Adsorbed by Orbital Capture to a Metal Crystalline Nanostructure). Not public till October 27, 2012.

Further patents held by Andrea Rossi:

  • US 2002/0046762 A1 "Thermoelectric generators", Inventor: Andrea Rossi. Filing date: Oct 4,2001[133]
  • WO0229908 THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS (patent withdrawn). published on 03.03.2004. Applicant(s) Leonardo Technologies, Inc., 116 South River Road, Bedford, NH 03110 / US. Inventor(s) ROSSI, Andrea, c/o Leonardi Technologies, Inc.[134][135]
  • US 6051110 Thermolytic distillation of carbonaceous material
  • U.S. Patent US6620994 B2 Andrea Rossi: "Thermoelectric generators" (16.9.2003)

Reception, media coverage and criticism

Swedish journalist Mats Lewan (Nyteknik)

A noteworthy reception by respective associations or universities never happened, an attempt by inventors to publish their principle in a professional magazine failed. As of January 2011, no proper scientific publication is known. Only a few physicists reacted with blog entries or comments to the topic.

Italian daily press covered the invention in a mere four articles (some of these in local sections). Additionally, a small private radio station made an interview. A Greek business journal and a private TV station covered it. „Nyeteknik“ reported in Sweden, some positive coverage was published in US "Washington Times", which belongs to the Moon-Cult, in an article by Frank Perley.[136]

The energy catalyzer was also covered in several blogs. The most lively interest could be observed in Italy and Sweden.

The most renowned person to comment favourably on the energy catalyzer so far has been English Nobel Prize winner Brian Josephson. Josephson has been known for a supporter of so called "cold fusion" for years and is the editor of the corresponding article in English Wikipedia.[137]

The most committed critic is probably Italian habilitated nuclear chemist Camillo Franchini. Another critic is the habilitated Swedish nuclear physicist Peter Ekström of Lund University. Ekström calls Rossi's invention a "hoax" and pseudoscience. He also compares it to claims made by Randell Mills for the last twenty years (BlackLightPower - see Hydrino). In his criticism, Ekström refers to the conditions necessary for fusion and nuclear transformations as well as the radiation emitted. A summary of his criticism can be found here: Peter Ekström: Kall Fusion på italienska (Avdelningen för Kärnfysik, Lunds universitet. 12.4.2011, Swedish/English). Swedish professor for physics Kjell Aleklett from Uppsala University also criticized in his blog: Kjell Aleklett "Rossi energy catalyst – a big hoax or new physics?"

Early 2012 Australian aerospace engineer Ian Bryce investigated the reports of the conducted tests 2012 and found, that the shown experiments can easily be conducted by misconnecting the wires of the three-core power lead: One just has to connect the earth lead to the active pin and connect the earth lead than to the heaters. It would bypass the metering instruments since it usually doesn't make sense to measure the earth lead. The extra power would suffice to explain the measured heating output.[138]

Versions of this article in other languages

See also


Luigi Bacialli, Petrolio dai Rifiuti, SugarCo Edizioni (1979)
  • Giuseppe Levi: "Report on heat production during preliminary tests on the Rossi “Ni-H” reactor", Univ. Bologna, Jan. 2011 (auch: [32])
  • Focardi S., Habel R., and Piantelli F., "Anomalous Heat Production in Ni-H Systems," Nuovo Cimento, Vol. 107A, p. 163-167, (1994)
  • Notoya, R. et al., "Tritium Generation and Large Excess Heat Evolution by Electrolysis in Light and Heavy Water-Potassium Carbonate Solutions With Nickel Electrodes," Fusion Technology, Vol. 26, p. 179, (Sept. 1994)
  • Mengoli, G., Bernardini, M., Manducchi, C., and Zannoni, G., "Anomalous Heat Effects Correlated With Electrochemical Hydriding of Nickel," Il Nuovo Cimento, Vol. 20 D, p. 331-352, (1998)
  • Battaglia, A., Daddi, L., Focardi, S., Gabbani, V., Montalbano, V., Piantelli, F., Sona, P.G., and nesi, S., "Neutron Emission in Ni-H Systems," Nuovo Cimento, Vol. 112 A p. 921-931, (Sept. 1999)
  • S. Focardi, V. Gabbani, V. Montalbano, F. Piantelli, S. Veronesi. "Large excess heat production in Ni-H systems". Il Nuovo Cimento Vol. 111 A, N.11 pp. 1233, novembre 1998
  • Cerron-Zeballos, E., Crotty, I., Hatzifotiadou, D., Lamas Valverde, J., Williams, M.C.S., and Zichichi, A., "Investigation of Anomalous Heat Production in Ni-H Systems". Nuovo Cimento, Vol. 109A, p. 1645-1654, (1996).
  • Adalberto Piazzoli. "Fusione Fredda? Una ricerca italiana". CICAP - Scienza & Paranormale N. 78 (Mai 2008)
  • "Il ritorno della fusione fredda", Article in the journal "Query", 31.1.2011
  • "Il ritorno della fusione fredda: ci risponde Levi", Article in the journal "Query", 2.2.2011
  • Peter Ekström Kall fusion åter i hetluften, fysikaktuellt nr 2, May 2011, page 24. Full Text (Swedish)

News articles




  1. From the advertising: Featured Book Our featured book is John Michell's new book Rossi's eCat - Free Energy, Free Money, Free People. Out Now! 2011 – And an amazing technology has been developed in Italy which has been described as the greatest scientific discovery of all human history. Although shunned by most mainstream media - an army of enthusiasts have created websites, blogs, forums and videos discussing every stage of its development – while thousands are following this discovery on social networks. For the first time in human history - energy – heat and power - have been produced in abundant quantities at an insignificant cost without pollution. For the first time energy can be obtained cleanly and cheaply without burning fossil fuels, without nuclear power and without renewables – genuinely portable, free, green energy. Rossi’s eCat tells the story of how this energy source was discovered, developed by inventor Andrea Rossi, how it challenges modern science and what the consequences for mankind could be. This is a discovery which heralds nothing less than the start of a new era – the year 0 PR (Post-Rossi).
  2. Rossi: I am a doctor in the Philosophy of Science and Engineering from the Universita’ Degli Studi Di Milano
  3. Andrea Rossi in his patent application, page 12: the reaction actually provides a true nuclear cold fusion.
  5. July 6th, 2011
    Dear interested party,
    You have received this email because you have shown an initial interest for commercial involvement with our company and our products based on Andrea Rossi’s e-Cat invention (exothermic reaction between Hydrogen and Nickel). Many have signed non disclosure agreements with us and others are in the process of doing so. We offer you the possibility to meet with us prior to our public announcement that we accept international expressions of interest through our website as of September 2011.
    As such, this letter will update you on our current status, and provide you with a clearer understanding of the structure with which we are proceeding for all international partnerships. As many of you know, the manner is the same globally.
    Regarding exclusivity, having received expressions of interest from 63 countries and more than 850 companies, we decided to change our non-exclusivity approach so that due diligence and selection of multiple partners in any given country is the responsibility off the country rights holder. As such, we will only sign agreements with one company per country. Any additional factories will pass through this partner.
    --- ---
    Regarding our international sales approach, it is as follows:  We sell the rights to manufacture our products exclusively to one company for a given country at a fixed royalty price of 40.5 million Euros per factory producing 300,000 units annually. Within this price, we will:
    o Provide the blueprints to establish the factory according to our international standardized plans, including all details for the machinery / software / technical know-how used in the factory. o Provide transfer-of-knowledge (production, technical, after sales, maintenance) both in Greece as well as on location  Additional royalties are paid to us for each product sold  We sell and deliver the industrial secret as a component to the final product in a black box, plug-and-play module.  Local company partnerships, marketing, points of sales, technical support remains the responsibility of the country rights holder.  If additional factories need to be built, the same principles remain.  Our business and pricing is structured to create lucrative win-win opportunities for all.
    Regarding time-line and milestones for those interested to proceed in talks:  Initial meeting in Athens during July and August (except 14-20 July and 10-20 August) to discuss and sign preliminary expression of interest contract, whereby the opportunity to secure the exclusive rights will be given.
     Meeting in our factory during October to inspect and verify kW units  Meeting in our factory during December to inspect and verify MW units
    --- --- Regarding next steps, and based on the information provided herein, if you See opportunities that match your company’s capabilities, and if you believe your company qualifies to proceed with further talks, we welcome your reply to this email accordingly in order to:
     Signing of a non disclosure confidentiality agreement sent by us upon request  Secure a date for a meeting in Athens during July or August The abovementioned initial meeting in our offices here in Athens should not last more than 3-5 hours. Appointments will be set according to availability. As mentioned above, these meetings will take place during July (excluding above dates).
    --- --- Regarding factory specs, below is some basic information regarding the overview of the factory requirements according to our standards. Many of you will have already seen these figures; nothing has changed:
    Larger and smaller factories can be negotiated according to markets. Basic aspects of each factory producing 300,000 units annually (kW and MW product ranges) are:
     12,000m2 space (maximum height of 14 meters for half of the allocated space)  IT to monitor production line, 1st level support and distribution channels Assembly of products will include the following activities:  Build-up of final product (electronics, heat management, etc)  Assembly of reactors (purchased from Defkalion)  Quality Control  Total Quality Management  Environmental Control  Stress Tests  Functional Tests of end products  Recharging of units  Recycling procedures
    Factory Special Conditions:
     Clear air similar to pharmaceutical industry standards  Access to constant flow of water  Heat management of waste heat during tests of modules (this heat energy could also be used to run the factory’s energy needs with third party technology)
    --- --- Regarding R&D, it is also the case that some of you seek partnerships in the field of R&D. Such interest is seen favorably, but will be dealt with under case-by-case assessment following a detailed expression of interest. Please note that such talks will take place after October 2011.
    --- --- We would like to reiterate that this communication is made and provided to you prior to our international announcement in light of your early participation in this exciting endeavor. As of September we shall be open to the world at-large through our new website, which, to date, has received nearly 2 million hits since June 23rd. We look forward to hearing from you accordingly, and look forward to welcoming you in Greece soon. You can use the same email ( for your replies.
    Sincerely, Symeon Tsalikoglou Director Business Development & Marketing Defkalion Green Technologies
  6. Piantelli, F., Energy Generation and Generator by Means of Anharmonic Stimulated Fusion. Patent EP 0767962 B1, 1995. [1]
  8. Angelo Saso: La magia del signor Rossi, Rainews24 May 3, 2011
  11. Citation from JONP Blog: Daniel de França MTd2 April 29th, 2011 at 2:09 PM Dr Mr. Rossi, Concerning the Nickel input in the experiment, do you deplete it of Ni58? Best, Daniel. Andrea Rossi April 29th, 2011 at 2:47 PM Dear Mr Daniel De Francia: Yes Warm regards, A.R.
  12. According to S. Focardi in an E-Mail: [...] mostra l'esistenza di Cu (non presente inizialmente) i cui due isotopi stabili sono in un rapporto diverso da quello naturale [...]
  13. According to Prof. Jonghwa Chang, Chief Research Advisor of the "Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute", in answering an inquiry by an Italian chemist. see: [2]
  14. Powder nickel: Gerli Metalli--Milan
  15. S. Focardi, V. Gabbani, V. Montalbano, F. Piantelli, S. Veronesi. "Large excess heat production in Ni-H systems". Il Nuovo Cimento Vol. 111 A, N.11 pp. 1233, novembre 1998
  17. Battaglia, L. Daddi, S. Focardi, V. Gabbani, V. Montalbano, F. Piantelli, P.G. Sona, S. Veronesi. "Neutron emission in Ni-H Systems". Nuovo Cimento 112A, pp. 921, 1999.
  18. E. Stremmenos: Hydrogen/Nickel cold fusion probable mechanism. Journal of nuclear physics, 12.12.2010
  20. "Ultra Low Momentum Neutron Catalyzed Nuclear Reactions on Metallic Hydride Surfaces," Eur. Phys. J. C, 46: 107–111. (2006)
  21. S. Romanowski, W. M. Bartczak, R. Wesołkowski: Density Functional Calculations of the Hydrogen Adsorption on Transition Metals and Their Alloys. An Application to Catalysis, (3.8.1999), Langmuir, 1999, 15 (18), Seiten 5773–5780 - DOI: 10.1021/la981339q [3]
  22. 22.0 22.1
  23. Andrea Rossi
    June 6th, 2011 at 2:38 PM
    Dear Greg:
    Good point. This is why we are very conservative regarding the sale of single modules. We are engineering a system that will destroy automatically the confidential parts if the reactor is open. The reactors will be open only in our factory to replace the charge. This is why we want not to replace the charges on site.
    Warm regards,

    Andrea Rossi
    June 2nd, 2011 at 8:01 AM
    Dear Mr Riccardo:
    I think that the household targeted items will arrive later. We have to resolve the problem to make them self-destructive in case of opening the reactors. Otherwise, with few thousands of dollars anybody has access to the confidential aspects of the technology. In industrial plants this issue is more easy to afford and has been resolved. Warm Regards,

    Andrea Rossi
    June 6th, 2011 at 4:50 PM
    Dear Greg:
    Defkalion, I suppose, will not sell modules until the protection issue will not be resolved.
    Warm regards,
  24. S. Focardi, A. Rossi: A new energy source from nuclear fusion., Journal of Nuclear Physics. [4]
  25. Nyteknik-Chat 12.03.2011, [5]
  26. Interview with Andrea Rossi, Talk Radio "Coast to Coast AM", on March 23, 2011 [6]
  27. 27.0 27.1 Blog about the "Investors World" article
  28. 28.0 28.1 Coverage and scan of the article in "Investors World" (Greek)
  29. 29.0 29.1 Article in Greek journal "Investors World" of March 12, 2011, pages 20-21
  30. "Truffle Prize", second Asti Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals, 1995
  31. Press conference on 20. February 1994, Aula magna, University Siena
  33. Company GM System, Via dell'Elettricista 16, Bologna
  36. From JONP-Blog, Question to Rossi: January 28th, 2011 at 10:57 AM
    Excuse, Dr. Levi, my insistence, but on the lack of an answer to my previous question, let me temporarily assume that the model of the pump used in the January 14th test belongs actually to the Milton Roy LMI Series P1.
    In such a case, the capacity per stroke could be at maximum 2 ml (model P18 in the Series P1). Now, considering the pump has been operated at about 57 strokes per minute (hear sound at the beginning of movie 2/3), it makes a maximum water flow rate of 114 ml per minute, that would be 39% only of the value indicated in your preliminary report.
    Probably, I have got a bad impression and the pump was another one. So I think it would be of great importance, if you could gather and kindly specify, here and/or on the final version of your report, the real specific model and the relevant operating data of the water pump used in your verification test.
    Thank you and best regards

    A. Rossi:
    Andrea Rossi
    January 28th, 2011 at 10:32 PM
    Dear (Name):
    I do not know which kind of pump it was, because it has been chosen by the testers, but what I can say, regarding your comment, is:
    1- the amount of the flow of water has been tested many times during the test, filling a reservoir with a well known volume and taking the time to fill it up.
    2- I thank you very much for validating our test by redundance: in fact, if only the 39% of the measured flow should have been passed, the reactor would have produced 4.8 kWh, consuming 400 Wh. I am sure that you, being an engineer of a great energy provider, know the first and also the second thermodynamic principle, therefore I am sure you made your comment to congratulate us.
    For this reason I thank you infinitely.
    Warm Regards, Andrea Rossi
  39. Sartorius (CPA34001S) 34 kg d=0,1 gr e 0,2 gr.[7]
    Precisa 490K 34000D, 34 kg d=0,1 gr e 0,2 gr [8]
    Kern CDS 15K0.05 15 kg d=0,05 g, e 0,25 g
    Adam Equipment PGL-20001 Precision Balance 20 kg d 0.1g, linearity (±): 0.4g
  40. Mats Lewan: Cold Fusion: 18 hour test excludes combustion, "", article from February 23, 2011. Text
  41. Zitat:
    Rossi 18-hour demonstration

    February 2011

    On February 10 and 11, 2011, Levi et al. (U. Bologna) performed another test of the Rossi device. Compared to the January 14 test, they used a much higher flow rate to keep the cooling water from vaporizing. This is partly to recover more heat, and partly because Celani and others criticized phase-change calorimetry as too complicated. There were concerns about the enthalpy of wet steam versus dry steam, and the use of a relative humidity meter to determine how dry the steam was. A source close to the test gave Jed Rothwell the following figures. These are approximations:

    Duration of test: 18 hours
    Flow rate: 3,000 L/h = ~833 ml/s.
    Cooling water input temperature: 15°C
    Cooling water output temperature: ~20°C
    Input power from control electronics: variable, average 80 W, closer to 20 W for 6 hours

    The temperature difference of 5°C * 833 ml = 4,165 calories/second = 17,493 W. Observers estimated average power as 16 kW. A 5°C temperature difference can easily be measured with confidence.

    3,000 L/h is 793 gallons/h, which is the output of a medium-sized $120 ornamental pond pump.

    The control electronics input of ~80 W is in line with what was reported for tests before Jan. 14. Input power was high on that day because there was a problem with cracked welding, according to the Levi report.

    18 hours * 16 kWh = 288 kWh = 1,037 MJ. That is the amount of energy in 26 kg of gasoline (7.9 gallons). Given the size and weight of the device, this rules out a chemical source of energy.

    Levi et al. are expected to write another paper about this test. We will upload it when it becomes available. NyTeknik published a fascinating description of the latest experiment (in English). This includes new details, such as the fact that the power briefly peaked at 130 kW. NyTeknik also published an interview with two outside experts about the demonstration: Prof. Emeritus at Uppsala University Sven Kullander, chairman of the National Academy of Sciences Energy Committee, and Hanno Essén, associate professor of theoretical physics, Swedish Royal Institute of Technology. Two versions are available, in English and Swedish.
    LENR-CANR Org. News from February 2011. [9]
  46. Sven Kullander's additional comments on Rossi's Energy Catalyzer im Mailarchive
  47. S. Focardi, A. Rossi, A new energy source from nuclear fusion, Journal of Nuclear Physics,, Februar 2010
  52. Krivit S.B.: Preliminary Report of Interviews with E-Cat Trio Rossi, Focardi and Levi. June 16, 2011. New Energy Times Blog. [10]
  53. -------- Messaggio originale --------
    Oggetto: sonda
    Data: Thu, 20 Jan 2011 18:56:41 +0100 Mittente: Greit Service srl>
    A: <francesco.celani@xxx; Si certifica che lo strumento con cui è stato effettuata la misura dell'acqua libera nel vapore durante il test svoltosi a Bologna il 14.01.2011 era lo strumento HD37AB1347 della Delta Ohm dotato di sonda mod.HP474AC con campo di risoluzione -40;+150°C.
    Galantini dr.Gilberto
    *GREIT SERVICE s.r.l.
    via Monsignore di Sotto, 32/A 44040 ALBERONE DI CENTO (FE) C.F. e P. I.V.A. 02544400373 [omissis]
    Messaggio inoltrato da [omissis]-----

    Data: Mon, 20 Jun 2011 14:02:22 +0200 Da: Greit Service srl Rispondi-A:Greit Service srl [omissis] A: [omissis]

    Buon giorno, in merito alla richiesta fattami in data odierna, come da me ripetutamente confermato alle numerose persone che me ne hanno fatto richiesta in passato, ripeto che tutte le mie misurazioni effettuate durante le decine di test per misurare la quantità di acqua non evaporata presente nel vapore prodotto dai generatori “E-Cat” sono sempre state effettuate dando i risultati in % di massa poiché lo strumento utilizzato indica i gr. di acqua per mc. di vapore.
    Confermo che la temperatura misurata è sempre stata maggiore di 100,1°C.
    E che la pressione misurata nel camino è sempre risultata essere pari alla pressione ambiente.
    Lo strumento utilizzato durante il test effettuato alla presenza dei professori svedesi è stato il seguente: Testo 176 H2 codice 0572 1766.
    Distinti saluti.

    Galantini dr. Gilberto
    Ordine dei Chimici n.194
    Provincia di Ferrara

  55. June 17th, 2011 at 3:10 PM
    Dear Maryyugo:
    We have already made enough public tests, either heating the water ( please go to read all our reports and papers on the Journal Of Nuclear Physics, or making steam. In this last case we always made the measurement of unvaporized water residue giving the result in mass. Our tests have been made with Professors of Physics working with the Universities of Bologna, Uppsala, Stockolm, with CERN, with INFN, and I think that only an imbecile can think that such Persons are not able to weight water in steam. We are receiving suggestions how to measure the water in steam, and this is like teach to a cat how to miew. By the way: the steam from the reactors which we are testing now, and that will compound the 1 MW plant, is dry. The steam during the interview of the clown of yesterday was totally dry. Of course, should be this not true, our Customers will be very angry: in that case, that will be an opinion which will be very important for us, while the opinion of our competitors and of their friends, for obvious reasons, have not much importance for us, if any. Now I have to make my 1 MW plant, then we will make other 1 MW plants for our Customers. That’s all we will do. Our Customers tests are the sole tests that count, for us. Therefore, I have absolutely not time for competitors anxious to test my Cat to make their “validation”.
    About the work that we will make with the University of Bologna and Uppsala, this will not be a public demo, but a work of Research and Development, made closed doors.
    Warm Regards,
  56. Dear Craig:
    Mr Krivit has understood nothing of what he saw, from what I have read in his ridiculous report… This guy has seen for half an hour an E-Cat in the factory where we make many tests, made some questions to Prof. Levi, Prof. Focardi and me. Evidently has understood nothing, perhaps for the short time we gave him, also because we have to work. Prof. Levi has explained very well to him how the measures have been made and the importance of the issue. He has explained very well that the percentage of uncondensed water in the steam has been measured in weight (in volume is impossible, for various reasons), and he also got confirmation of this from a specialist from whom he has taken indipendent counsel. Nevertheless, he has understood nothing, or wanted not to understand, for reasons he better knows. Our tests have been performed by Physics Professors, who know how to make measures , and I am measuring the performance every day on 300 reactors.
    In any case we will start our 1 MW plant in october and we will see how it works. Of course I assure his considerations are invalid, but I want to say more: our products on the market will confirm this. Probably this journalist has been sent by someone that wants to dwarf our work. He also tried to blackmail prof. Levi, and Levi already has given to his attorney due. information .
    Warm Regards,
    17 giugno 2011 11:48
  57. Dear Mr. Krivit Carefully I have read your preliminary report on your travel to Bologna . Your report Clearly Demonstrates That You have not understood anything of what you have and what we have seen you Explained. First of all the story about the steam. As the signature in my email says I got a PhD in Physics Years Ago.This Means That I have totally Understood the difference Between residual water in steam as fraction of the mass or volume. As I have unsuccessfully tried to explain you: 1) The plots are showing you where you can find well known and Them in Any manual of physical chemistry. When You apply the measure the quantity of steam present as% of VOLUME. 2) As I have told you many times, Dr. Galantini, the expert chemist That Was in charge, have done to measure as percent of MASS. As Professor Zanchini has told you the Same Day We Met, one of the informations you have crutial omitted from your preliminary report, fraction of water in the steam, Measured by MASS as we have done, would reduce the amount of energy in a Measured linear way. So our analysis and our calculation is correct. Because you: Part of You Had omitted information, insulted me (and my University) Trying to say that I'm not prepared in my field, tried (just tried) to scare me and put me under psychological pressure in order to know to Obtain undisclosed date, I Will not Send You Any Other information. Regards, Dr. G. Levi
  59. Julian Brown
    July 17, 2011 - 12:41 pm
    Rossi gave me a personal demonstration of a group of 4 e-cats working at his premises outside Bologna on Friday 8th. I saw essentially the same set up reported by Krivit in June. I was there in the capacity of friendly off-the-record adviser re patenting issues. Whilst I didn’t like the tone of Krivit’s June 16 report, I had arrived in Bologna full of optimism. I am afraid that I now fully share Krivit’s opinion. There are a number of reasons for this. Here are a few. As has been pointed out numerous times on this blog, the dryness of the steam/water vapur is abolutely crucial to the viability of the e-cat. Imagine my astonishment and disappointment on finding that Rossi makes no attempt to monitor the dryness of the output and there was no appropiate equipment visible on the premises. It follows that Rossi can not possibly know whether he has 1,2 5 or even 10 percent unvaporized phase by weight. Passive observers like myself, Krivit, Essen & Kullander have even less chance of determining this crucial parameter. Even worse, since the output tube went straight through a hole in the wall to be vented/flushed outside, it could have been pure hot water and nobody, least of all Rossi, could possibly know. Basically, the whole set up defies even approximate quantitative calorimetric analysis. Another odd thing was that Rossi pumped up the electrical power for a minute or two shortly before turning it off and allowing me to see that the water kept an output temperature of 100.5 for a couple of minutes. This gave me the impression that it was a performance for my benefit and not the rigorous testing procedure that the technician sitting in front of the PC appeared to suggest. The final clincher for me is that Rossi made a point of telling me that he was currently vaporizing 15 litres / hour. BUT, the peristaltic pump was exactly the same one he uses in all demonstrations and it was pulsing about once every 2.5 seconds. I make that 3 litres / hour, only 20 percent of what Rossi told me verbally. And yet this small flow was being shared amongst 4 e-cat modules. That isnt much of a stress test is it ? The small chimney will result in a small overpressure and a boiling temperature > 100 Celsius, so I am not impressed by 100.5 Celsius I must admit that I didnt reach these dismal conclusion on the day. It took about 3 days of pondering what I had seen before all the pieces of the puzzle dropped into place. It may be this explains why Rossi has been able to convince so many qualified people. You dont want to believe it is just a gross and extremely simple circus trick. He certainly has a charming manner; I liked him and would never suggest he has criminal intent. My hunch is that he did make a discovery that goes beyond the level acheived by Piantelli and Focardi, but that he got too enthusiastic too soon, before he had really done due diligence. He is now trapped in the web of commitments and claims he has made. A tragic figure really. PS I was in experimental atomic physics research at Oxford from 1981-1989 and have since that time been an employee of the European Patent Office.
  60. See the E-cat run in self-sustained mode, Mats Lewan, Ny Teknik, September 14, 2011
  61. Test of Energy Catalyzer, Report by Mats Lewan
  62. Collected Comments on Sept. 7 Afternoon Rossi Test, Steven B. Krivit, September 15, 2011
  63. [ Test of Energy Catalyzer], Mats Lewan, Bologna, October 6, 2011
  64. New test of the E-cat enhances proof of heat, Mats Lewan, Ny Teknik am October 7, 2011
  65. Rossi’s 11th Test, 11th Failure, Steven B. Krivit, October 11, 2011
  66. E-Cat Test Demonstrates Energy Loss, Steven B. Krivit, October 8, 2011
  67. Rossi e-cat – Oct 6 significant test, Dr. Mark D. Nispel | October 7, 2011
  68. Cerron-Zeballos, E., Crotty, I., Hatzifotiadou, D., Lamas Valverde, J., Williams, M.C.S., and Zichichi, A., "Investigation of Anomalous Heat Production in Ni-H Systems". Nuovo Cimento, Vol. 109A, p. 1645-1654, (1996).
  69. Adalberto Piazzoli. "Fusione Fredda? Una ricerca italiana". CICAP - Scienza & Paranormale N. 78 (Mai 2008)
  72. From: Brian Ahern, Boxborough MA
  75. Kensington University, 520 E Broadway Suite 400, Glendale, CA 91205
  76. Article in "LA-Times": Kensington University Faces Closure Hearing. April 23, 1996 | JOHN CHANDLER, TIMES STAFF WRITER.
    Kensington University has no classrooms, laboratories or dorms. Its students don't play football, join fraternities or linger dreamily on a quadrangle. In fact, the entire campus is housed in a small Glendale office building. Recruiting from across the nation, the school runs a program in which students studying entirely at home can earn anything from a bachelor's degree to a doctorate--all without ever attending a single class or even meeting their instructors face to face.
  80. Contribution of user Matslewan on March 23, 2011 in English Wikipedia: As a journalist I have interviewed Rossi and he says that the title from Kensington University is an honorary title he gained because of an earlier patent regarding bio fuel. He claims he knows no more about this university.
  81. FASANO GIUSI, "Corriere della Sera" vom 6. April 1995:

    Manette bis per Andrea Rossi
    La Procura di Ariano Irpino accusa l’ inventore del ” refluo petrolio ” di riciclaggio di denaro sporco. Ricercato il corriere della banda che avrebbe trasferito con furgoni blindati oltre 2 tonnellate d’ oro
    MONZA. Se finora ha creduto di essere nei guai si e’ sbagliato. Andrea Rossi, inventore del chiacchierato procedimento per trasformare in petrolio la spazzatura e i rifiuti industriali, e’ molto piu’ che in semplici guai. Di tutte le “tegole” che gli sono piovute addosso finora, la piu’ pesante e’ arrivata ieri dalla Procura di Ariano Irpino, in provincia di Avellino. Il giudice delle indagini preliminari Vincenzo Caputo ha emesso, su richiesta del sostituto Rosario Baglioni, un’ ordinanza di custodia cautelare contro di lui per associazione a delinquere finalizzata al riciclaggio di capitali di illecita provenienza e alla frode fiscale. La presunta organizzazione a delinquere sarebbe formata, oltre che dall’ ideatore del “refluo petrolio” e da una persona per ora irreperibile, anche da Michele Pizzato, italiano con residenza in Svizzera, uomo di fiducia di Andrea Rossi e, negli ultimi tempi, suo compagno di “sventura”. Una sventura cominciata un paio di settimane fa con le conclusioni di una inchiesta condotta dal sostituto procuratore monzese Salvatore Bellomo. Alla fine delle sue indagini, il pm monzese aveva chiesto e ottenuto l’ arresto sia di Rossi che di Pizzato per associazione a delinquere finalizzata alla falsa fatturazione e alla frode fiscale. L’ accusa riguardava la documentazione fittizia che i due avrebbero compilato per attestare la compravendita e l’ esportazione di decine di chili d’ oro, merce di cui Rossi si occupa da quasi due anni come titolare dell’ oreficeria “St. Andre’ ” di Milano (societa’ che lavora l’ oro a Luogosano, in provincia di Avellino). I due erano percio’ finiti in carcere, sperando che il castello di accuse crollasse dopo gli interrogatori. Errore. Perche’ i fatti contestati dal pm monzese hanno trovato conferma nell’ inchiesta del collega di Ariano Irpino, che da oltre un anno stava seguendo praticamente lo stesso filone d’ indagine e che adesso, nelle sue ipotesi d’ accusa, si spinge fino all’ associazione finalizzata al riciclaggio di denaro sporco. In un comunicato stampa diffuso ieri dal comando di gruppo della Guardia di Finanza di Avellino si parla in dettaglio della nuova ordinanza di custodia notificata in carcere a Rossi e Pizzato. Risulterebbe, com’ era gia’ noto dall’ inchiesta monzese, che 46 miliardi di lingotti d’ oro (ben 2.323 chili) avrebbero passato il confine italiano solo sulla carta e, inoltre, che l’ associazione a cui farebbe capo Rossi avrebbe evaso tributi per 120 miliardi con false esportazioni di congegni ad alta tecnologia. Il terzo uomo ricercato e’ il trasportatore dei lingotti, un personaggio abituato a muoversi su furgoni blindati. Sul trasferimento di fondi verso paradisi fiscali come il Liechtenstein, i finanzieri sostengono che “l’ articolazione dell’ organizzazione” era tale da far intuire che l’ obiettivo fosse anche anche il riciclaggio di denaro sporco.
    E da Milano nuova incriminazione. Smaltimento clandestino di veleni
    MILANO. Petrolio dai rifiuti tossici? Macche’ , le 58 mila tonnellate di liquami industriali accumulate dalla Petrol Dragon nelle cisterne dell’ ex raffineria Omar di Lacchiarella erano e restano un cocktail di veleni assolutamente non riciclabile. Andrea Rossi, rappresentante legale dell’ azienda, e il liquidatore Alessandro Reale sono stati incriminati dalla Procura circondariale di Milano per stoccaggio e smaltimento abusivo di rifiuti tossico nocivi. La Regione ha gia’ deciso di costituirsi parte civile, anche per ottenere i 50 60 miliardi necessari alla bonifica. L’ inchiesta era stata avviata il 14 dicembre ‘ 93 dopo il sequestro, da parte del Corpo forestale dello Stato, di un’ autocisterna proveniente dal deposito Petrol Dragon di Piossasco (Torino), sorpresa a scaricare nei serbatoi di Lacchiarella 10 tonnellate di liquami con altissime percentuali di Pcb (policlorobifenile), una sostanza tossica e sospetta cancerogena.
    Fasano Giusi. [11]
  88. Eon S.r.l., V. C.ragazzi 18, I-44012 Bondeno
  89. EON Srl, Via Ottaviano 66, Roma
  90. Leonardo Corporation, 116 South River Road, Bedford, N.H. 03110 - USA. Website:
  91. Leonardo Corporation, 8 Town Farm Rd, New Boston NH 03070 [12]
  92. Rossi Energy Catalyzer, "The New Fire"?
    Posted on June 10, 2011 by David Niebauer
    by David Niebauer

    I have just finished listening to an astounding podcast of an interview with Dennis Bushnell, Chief Scientist at NASA’s Langley Research Center, talking about low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) and devices that are apparently generating significant energy in the form of heat, with very little input of raw material and no radioactive waste.
    Bushnell makes reference to Andrea Rossi, an Italian inventor who claims to have discovered a previously unknown source of energy by combining pressurized nickel powder with hydrogen and a catalyst. Rossi has filed for international patent protection, but he is guarding the precise mechanism as a trade secret until the patent issues.
    I first heard of Andrea Rossi in January of this year on the site Next Big Future where it was reported that Rossi had demonstrated his Energy Catalyzer (or E-Cat, for short) in Bologna, monitored by independent scientific representatives of Bologna University. Ny Teknik, a Swedish technology magazine, reported that, “For about an hour it produced approximately 10 kilowatts of net power, loaded with one gram of nickel powder pressurized with hydrogen. See Wikipedia entry for background.
    Since that time Rossi has repeatedly demonstrated the device and it has received validation from the Swedish Skeptics Society, among others. Demonstration devices have now also been delivered to the University of Bologna, the University of Uppsala and the University of Stockholm for extended testing.
    According to Bushnell, what is occurring in the Rossi device is a nuclear reaction, but it’s not a cold fusion. He claims it is a reaction of the Weak Nuclear Force. Bushnell believes that heat is generated from beta decay of subatomic particles and that, applying quantum theory, physicists will soon be able to explain the mechanism. The physics is not well understood, which is fueling a certain amount of skepticism.
    I recently met with Andrea Rossi and find him to be genuine and credible. Rossi told me that he would like to have a 1MW plant operating in the US by October of this year. He is looking for the right partners to help him enter the market in the United States.
    According to Rossi, Bushnell is on the wrong track, at least from a theoretical perspective. “If beta decay explained the reactions in my device, I would have been killed already [by the radiation] and we would have found different isotopes,” Rossi told me. He claims that he has a good handle on the theory, but he won’t disclose it until his patent is granted.
    Bushnell states that NASA is just now finishing a testing lab designed for the specific purpose of investigating LENR. With Rossi making news since early this year that he has built an operating LENR, I hear Bushnell making a pitch to have it tested and validated by NASA.
    According to Rossi, he will do a demonstration for NASA only if they agree to purchase an operating plant once his device obtains the expected efficiency. Rossi is intent on moving his Energy Catalyzer from the testing lab into the field.
    I don’t pretend to understand the physics, or to be in a position to know for certain whether the Rossi Energy Catalyzer is the breakthrough we have been waiting for. I will therefore let Dennis Bushnell have the final word for now: “I think we are almost over the “we do not understand it” problem. I think we are almost over the “this does not produce anything useful” problem. I think this will go forward fairly rapidly now. If it does, this is capable of, by itself, completely changing geo-economics, geo-politics, and solving climate issues.”
    David Niebauer is a corporate and transaction attorney, located in San Francisco, whose practice is focused on financing transactions, M&A and cleantech.
  93. EFA srl, Via Marsili 4, I-40100 Bologna
  94. LEONARDO TECHNOLOGIES, INC., 116 S River RD, BEDFORD, NH 031106734
  97. AmpenErgo Inc., 116-G South River Road, Bedford NH 03110
  98. President: Karl Norwood, founders and main shareholders: Karl Norwood (NAI Norwood Group, Inc.), Richard Noceti (, Robert Gentile and Craig Cassarino. Minority shareholder: Ronald Engleman
  101. NORWOOD MANAGEMENT KARL NORWOOD INC, 116 S RIVER RD UNIT A, Bedford, New Hampshire 03110
  102. NAI Norwood Group, Inc., 116 South River Road, Bedford NH 03110
  103. LEONARDO TECHNOLOGIES, INC., 116 S River RD, BEDFORD, NH 031106734
  106. The following people are known from the management of Green Technologies:
    • Sortikos George (born 1942) president. (Architect, previous president of "Ω Βank", and owner of Oxymachon company)
    • Alexandros Xanthoulis (born 1954), vice president. Xanthoulis also represents the Cypriot PRAXEN Defkalion Green Technologies Ltd.
    • Christos Stremmenos (born 1932), vice president (former professor at Bologna University and former Greek ambassador in Italy)
    • George Xanthoulis (born 1987), son of Alexandros Xanthoulis
    • David Christian Aurel (born 1969), Managing Director. Aurel also is a CEO of Invest Bank Montenegro.
    • John Chadjichristos (born 1958), corporate consultant
    • Andreas Meidanis (born 1953), industrialist
    • Muafak Sauachni (born 1961), medical doctor from Israel
    • Andreas Drugas (born 1945), corporate consultant
    • Symeon Tsalikoglou, press spokesman
  107. Praxen Defkalion Green Technologies (Global) Ltd., is based in Cyprus; it owns the contract signed with the inventor regarding the industrial secret with right of first refusal to sell globally except the US. (Specified on Defkalion-Website, 24.6.2011)
  108. From a chat conversation at Nyeteknik on March 12, 2011
  109. Citation: ..Presented on Thursday, finally, officially, the energy investment project of the Greek company Defkalion Green Technologies SA on the industrial application of scientific discovery of the famous "cold fusion nickel and hydrogen" Italian professors Sergio Foccardi and Andrea Rossi has created great interest internationally....Investing a total budget of 300 to 400 million, includes three industrial units, which will settle in Thrace.. Source: Article "Investing 400 million in Xanthi for "cold fusion" of hydrogen", in "Energy Press", 23.6.2011
  110. Panel Speakers: Andrea Rossi Professor Christos Stremmenos Alexandros Xanthoulis as representative of the investors Media Participation: Greek national television channels Skai / ANT1 / NET Greek radio stations Skai / ERT Greek print media Real News / O Kosmos tou Ependiti / Kerdos / Xanthi Press / H Gnomi / Axia / Makedonia Italian media Rai24 / Rai1 / independent online journalists Swedish media E-Cat report / Independent online journalists International press European Press Agency / Associated Press Environmental agencies Public Figures: Hellenic Ministry of Regional Development (Industry & Energy) Alternate Minister, Socratis Xinidis Federal German Green Party Member of the Executive Board, Rene Ramminger Municipality of Palaio Faliro Mayor, Dionysis Hatzidakis Municipality of Athens, Sport & Youth Deputy Mayor, Toula Psaraki Greek Technical Chamber of Commerce Chairman, Christos Spirtzis Union of Greek Chambers of Commerce Chairman, George Kassimatis Hellenic-American Chamber of Commerce President, Yanos Gramatidis LARCO (Nickel company of Greece) CEO, Anastasios Barakos Federation of Industries of Northern Greece representative Professors and scientists from numerous universities in Greece and abroad International visitors: Australia, Canada, Chile, China, Italy, Germany, Sweden, UK, USA. [13]
  114. Defkalion Green Technologies S.A., Temporary Head Quarters - Mesogeion Avenue 2-4, Athens Tower, 18th Floor, GR-11527 Athens, Tel: +30 210 7770602, Fax: +30 210 7770608. Email: Domain registrant is one Andreas Meintanis from GR-19200 Elefsina.
  115. Defkalion Head Office, Xanthou 3, Glifada, GR-16674 Greece. Tel: +30 210 7770602 - Fax: +30 210 7770608
  117. [...] Rossi is now paying the remaining 500,000 Euros to the Physics Department of Bologna University, following a new agreement under which the university will help Rossi with the continued development of the reactor and studies of its physical phenomena.
    According to the agreement, the work is led by the physicist Giuseppe Levi, who was the main observer when the "energy catalyzer" was demonstrated to invited scientists and media in Bologna in January 2011. Giuseppe Levi also carried out a longer test of the reactor in February, lasting 18 hours.
  119. Email Prof. Dario Braga/UniBo: I can confirm that to the best of my knowledge the contract between the dept of physics and the EFA company has been cancelled because unfulfilled at the agreed deadline and that there is no further relationship between the company and the university based on that contract.
    Dario Braga
    Professor Dario Braga University of Bologna
    Bologna, 25 gennaio 2012 – Il Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Bologna dichiara che il contratto sottoscritto nel giugno 2011 tra il Dipartimento di Fisica e la EFA srl (la società italiana di proprietà di Andrea Rossi) è stato rescisso causa il mancato soddisfacimento delle condizioni al termine contrattuale previsto. Non c’è più alcun rapporto tra il Dipartimento e la EFA srl legato a questo contratto. Tuttavia, il Dipartimento di Fisica si è reso disponibile con la sua esperienza e le sue strumentazioni per svolgere autonome misurazioni sulla produzione di calore da parte dell’apparecchiatura denominata e-cat al fine di fornire una risposta all’intera comunità scientifica e all’opinione pubblica in merito al fenomeno. I risultati delle misure saranno pubblicati.
  124. ALESSANDRO MEIARINI, Via Belriguardo 128, I-53100 Siena
  125. WO 2009/125444 A1: METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CARRYING OUT NICKEL AND HYDROGEN EXOTHERMAL REACTIONS. Applicant: Pascucci, Maddalena. Inventor: Rossi, Andrea. Date: 15.10.2009
  128. IT MI20080629 (A1), METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CARRYING OUT NICKEL AND HYDROGEN EXOTHERMAL REACTIONS. Publication date: 2009-10-10. Inventor(s): ROSSI ANDREA, Applicant(s): PASCUCCI MADDALENA. Also published as: WO 2009125444 (A1), US 2011005506 (A1), EP 2259998 (A1)
  132. Method and Apparatus for carrying out nickel and hydrogen exothermal reaction, United States Patent Application Publication
  133. A thermoelectric module including a couple formed between two bismuth telluride thermoelectrodes. The first thermoelectrode is doped with palladium, selenium, or a combination of the two. The second thermoelectrode is doped with antimony, gold, or a combination of the two. Multiple thermoelectric... Inventor: Andrea Rossi
  136. Frank Perley: PERLEY: Nuclear future beyond Japan - Purported cold fusion advance aimed at energy woes, "The Washington Times", March 3, 2011.
  138. “Cold fusion” tests misled scientists, Australian Skeptics, January 30, 2012