Chemtrail, according to a common conspiracy theory, is the name for certain types of contrails. This pseudo-scientific idea believes that at least part of the known contrails consist of various added substances, on whose composition, however, followers of this idea apparently cannot agree. Modified contrails allegedly show a different behaviour from regular ones. They are said to remain visible in the sky for a longer time, and to appear in a checkerboard pattern. There is no consensus among followers of the chemtrail idea regarding which airplanes spread the additives. Some believe chemtrails were caused by various different types of planes, while others believe only certain military aircraft were responsible. An extended version of this theory claims that chemtrails are able to dissolve carbon-dioxide, resulting in a local decrease in temperature due to the diminished greenhouse effect. This creates a huge depression that sucks in surrounding air, causes extreme thunderstorms, rainfalls, storms, and hail.
The History of the Word Chemtrail
The term chemtrail was coined in the US about 1998. Initially, the term "cloverleaf" was in more frequent use, but from 2000, the term contrail was used more and more on English language sites. Barium and aluminum were introduced into the debate around 2001. Clifford Carnicom from Santa Fe/New Mexico and Canadian William Thomas from Duncan (British Columbia) are often credited as creators of chemtrail hypotheses. They are in fact the only ones who left behind well dated material. Carnicom's records begin in the summer of 1999, with the double term of Contrail/Chemtrail. Carnicom most recently presents himself on a website called CACTUS (Citizens Against Chemtrails U.S.) According to Carnicum, barium was radioactive which adds another pseudo-scientific note to his conspiracy theories. Journalist William Thomas first wrote about the issue in January 1999 (article in Environment News Service - ENS), but still used the term contrails.
There are further historic documents, too, for example the well known radio chat show with Art Bell from 1999. While the first report only mentions (poisonous) contrails, the second one marks the birth of the term chemtrails' only one month later, albeit it is still set in quotation marks. The book "Chemtrails over America" by William Thomas was released shortly afterwards.
Another (self-proclaimed) inventor of this term is Jim Phelps. Here a quote which provides some insight into Mr. Phelps' mind:These truths revealed on the use of Chemtrails will show that the US Govt. has long known the truth on what causes the AIDS epidemic. Chemtrails use a truncated version of the Manna effect. And AIDS is the direct result of too much fluoride in the environment that is upsetting the beneficial trace metals in the human cells and immune system. This leads to a lower level of metals, like manganese, that block the reverse transcription of HIV. This is a very important concept from the End-Times predictions of huge health plagues sweeping the planet and all very predictable from the old biblical times for those that knew the mining industries.
The abstruse conspiracy theory
Supporters of the 1990ies chemtrail hypothesis believe certain substances - which are not described in detail - were mixed with kerosene in order to create an effect on the global climate, particularly on the greenhouse effect. Other conspiracy theorists believe it is part of a world wide program to reduce the global population, or for birth or even mind control. Behind these programs were, according to the chemtrail groups, the Freemasons, the Illuminati or an alleged Jewish conspiracy. There are often ties to extremist right groups, "brown esotericism" and supporters of cloudbuster, colloidal silver and zappers according to Hulda Clark. Typical supporters of the chemtrail hypothesis are Georg Ritschl, Werner Altnickel, Peter Platte, Helmut Gobsch, Heinz Gerhard Vogelsang, Don Croft and Rosalie Bertell. In Germany, extreme right political party NPD started an inquiry of chemtrails in the parliament of the federal state of Saxony. The issue of chemtrails is often used as a catchword by the extremist right.
These fallacious and unsupported assumptions are often promoted in the esoteric Swiss magazine "Zeitenschrift", in "Neue Impulse Treff" network associated with Scientology, and by the esoteric libertarian association "live Net Concept 2010". A popular photographic "proof" of alleged chemtrail operations can be seen in the picture on the right: A modified Boeing NKC-135A Stratotanker (717-100), serial number 17244, stationed at Edwards AFB in California. It sprays water to test the flight quality of planes under icing conditions. Tests are done on various kinds of planes, such as fighter jets or an Embraer EMB-120RT. This particular test plane has been decommissioned meanwhile.
Chemtrail supporters frequently claim that so called low budget airlines, especially Irish Ryanair, were only able to offer flights at such low prices because their main job in reality was the creation of chemtrails.
Contrails and cloud formation
Contrails (also called Ice-SuperSaturated Regions(ISSR)) are visible clouds of liquid (condensed) or frozen water droplets which form when hot exhaust streams of airplanes meet cold air under particular weather conditions. Decompression causes cooling and condensation, as can be seen when a bottle of sparkling wine is opened. "Fog" appears above the liquid. The same process plays a major role in the creation of clouds and rain in the atmosphere.
Some forms of clouds caused by planes appear without the interference of any exhaust gasses, for example winglet contrails which can be observed by flight passengers at the wing tips of planes under certain weather conditions, either shortly before landing or after take-off. Typical turbofan exhaust temperatures are about 600 K approximately.
The formation of contrails can be explained physically: Generally, water becomes visible in the air when relative humidity (number of water droplets in relation to air temperature) exceeds 100%. The warmer the air is, the more water vapour it is able to hold. Modern planes travel at high altitudes where temperatures are very cold. Cold air can only hold small amounts of water. Water is created chemically when kerosene is burnt, and exits the engines as an invisible gas. The surrounding cold air rapidly cools down the hot exhaust gas, and after a few metres (depending on temperature and humidity) causes the water to crystallize, forming the contrail. The contrail remains visible until water crystals are dispersed to the point where humidity drops below 100%. In a high pressure area with low humidity this happens rather fast resp. there will be no contrail at all when temperatures are high enough in the summer, like it is often the case in southern Europe for example. In the Arctic and Antarctic, however, contrails can sometimes form even at ground level or during take-off.
Given certain weather conditions, contrails can expand, remain visible for hours, or gather more clouds to the point where it starts to rain. Supporters of the chemtrail hypothesis then claim the plane made the bad weather. In reality, the exact opposite is true: Persistent contrails indicate upcoming bad weather, because low pressure areas typically come with high humidity, and the additional water (water vapour from the exhaust gas) is more than the air can absorb, and thus it will remain visible as fog or clouds. Sometimes chemtrail supporters will wonder why "spraying" has stopped. A quick look at the weather map helps: Usually there is a stable high pressure area with low humidity. Then, as soon as a low pressure area approaches, the chemtrail reports will come in again. Generally contrails appear at temperatures below -35°C, depending on altitude and humidity.
- Short contrails form at an altitude of about 10kms, if temperatures in the tropopause (10-15 km) are about -50°C with a humidity below 70%. Ice crystals form, but sublimate after a few seconds and become invisible.
- Persistent contrails which may expand and even lead to the formation of artificial cirrus clouds will form when the tropopause reaches a humidity of between 80-100%.
- No contrails at all even at high altitudes when temperatures close to the ground increase to 25°C or above in summer, and temperatures of the lower tropopause (10-12 km) reach -40°C and above, with a humidity below 30%. This is what happens in chemtrail free southern Europe in summer. Below a humidity of 25% at 10 kms altitude, no ice crystals will form.
During daytime, contrails will cover about 0.7% of the sky over Europe during the course of the year, at night (when contrails have an insulating effect) they will cover about 0.25%. On average they will cover about 0.5% of the sky.
When a plane flies through the not always straight and level (but wavy) border between warmer and colder air, it may appear as if contrails were turned off or on suddenly, even repeatedly in case of turbulences. Air warms quicker over large dark (tarmac) surfaces than over wet meadows, and begins to rise, forming bubbles or "chimneys" of warm air. Different thermal phenomena can exist next to each other. This results in the typical hops and bumps pilots of small airplanes experience. When contrails persist long enough, their form will get changed by winds and turbulences - just like regular clouds. Different colours are the result of differing refraction and reflection of sunlight. Chemtrail believers' sites display these aspects as unnatural and thus an evidence of chemicals. But they can actually be explained naturally, and in consistence with our knowledge of meteorology and physics, requiring no additional hypotheses or conspiracy theories.
Such pictures of clouds which, according to supporters of the chemtrail hypothesis, were evidence of sprayed chemicals, are photographically documented since well before the first powered flight of the Wright brothers, for example in the 1905 book Clouds studies. The first actual contrails were recorded shortly after World War I, when more powerful planes reached ever higher altitudes. The first report of a contrail is based on a flight of pilot Franz Zeno Diemer at an altitude of 9,300 m over Munich in 1919.
Inverted contrails - distrails is the name for the more rare breakup of clouds caused by airplanes. Water droplets vaporize faster in the hot exhaust gas, creating a cloud free trail. This can also be caused by mixing in dry air from above or under the the cloud layer.
Alleged chemical composition of chemtrail additives according to different sources
The following substances are said to be found in chemtrails, according to followers of the idea:
- Barium or barium compounds
- Aluminum compounds
- radioactive thorium
- synthetic fibers of unknown composition
- Ethylene dibromide (EDB)
- Mycoplasma, Pseudomonas and allegedly existing nanobacterias
- Vaccines against anthrax, tularemia, brucellosis, and measles in aerosol form
- Pathogens, genetically modified microbes of unknown kinds
Aluminum and barium are insoluble in kerosene, but there are compounds of these elements which are. However, even small traces of these are easily detected by modern analytic methods (e.g. ICP or AAS). Furthermore neither the application of aluminum nor that of barium make sense from a chemical or physiological point of view (especially regarding the desired harm). Aluminum is covered with an oxide layer, rendering it mostly inert. Barium, on the other hand, is so reactive it cannot be used here, as it would react immediately and violently with humidity and oxygen (creating barium hydroxide). Barium sulfate is harmless physiologically and insoluble in water. It has no bioavailability, hence it is administered orally as radio-opaque substance for x-rays. Teutonium is not known as an element. Whether pathogenic germs, bacteria, spores, vaccines, etc. will remain stable under the existing conditions remains disputable.
So far none of the aforementioned substances was identified clearly in contrails or jet exhaust fumes.
Speculations by the late anti-vaccination activist Anita Petek-Dimmer became a source of amusement in 2005, when she proclaimed that birds' flue (caused by the H5N1 virus) was the result of ionizing radiation from chemtrails. Petek-Dimmer believed that plutonium was added to chemtrails. Furthermore, she assumed: This radioactive radiation does not only dissolve animal cells, but also those of plants.
Known releases of substances in aviation
Cloud seeders disperse silver iodide (with acetone) specifically into thunderstorms to prevent hail. Smoke is often used in air shows, or to study wake turbulence. Water can be used for the same purpose. As part of military operations clouds can be manipulated to create rain. Such interventions are internationally regulated in the ENMOD provision of the United Nations. During the Vietnam war, Agent Orange was used to defoliate forests. In case of an emergency, planes are allowed to dump fuel. Contrary to contrails, smoke trails form directly at the outlet, while contrails form in a clear distance behind the engines.
Chemtrail and weather radar
Supporters of the chemtrail conspiracy theory occasionally claim there were strange echoes on the weather radars of meteorological services which seem to be ghost clouds. On July 19th 2005 e.g., the radar screens of German Weather Service (DWD) showed a small compact cloud formation at the North Sea coast of the Netherlands which looked like rain. Within two hours the radar showed a 300 km long cloud strip, reaching from the East Frisian Islands down to the northern Ruhr Area. But at the same time no clouds were visible, neither from the ground nor on satellite images, nor anything that might have looked like a mass of contrails. In this case, as well as in similar ones, chaffs (Rapid Bloom Chaff [RBC]) had been dispersed as part of a military exercise. Chaffs are small metal threads which reflect radar waves and disturb radar. Supporters of the chemtrail idea cannot be talking about chaff. Even they do not claim a correlation between supposed chemtrail sightings and strange radar echoes.
Logical counter arguments
A world wide secret program for creating artificial contrails coordinated by the UN, like chemtrail believers proclaim, must necessarily be kept secret by a vast number of adept people who, at the same time, break the law. This group would also involve aircraft crews, manufacturers of technologies and means used, ground crews, and airport employees. Chemtrail Supporters like Platte even claim several pilots were fired for refusing participation in this hypothetical chemtrail project. However, not a single one of them has come forth as a whistle blower as of now.
To achieve a concentration of 1 mg of a specific substance per square metre, one must disperse 1 kg of that substance per square km. Europe has an area of 10.5 million square kms, requiring 10,500 tons of that substance for a single spraying event. A typical large aircraft, such as the Boeing KC-135, has a maximum load of 85 tons of fuel. Therefore, 123 aircraft of this type were needed to get the job done, if every plane was to fly only once. The surface of the whole earth is about 510 million square kms, and 510,000 tons of material were needed for a single spraying, equaling 6,000 tankers. These figures require the use of the pure substance. If the substance had to be diluted, however, (for example 1:9) then 5,100,000 tons of the spraying solution are required, equaling 60,000 Phantom tankers. This is 3.2 times the official number of jets worldwide.
Another argument against the chemtrail hypothesis is the fact that the number of foggy days in Europe has been receding since the 1970ies until today (2009). This is based on an examination of data from 342 weather stations across Europe and was published in "Nature Geoscience" by scientists around Robert Vautard. The decrease in fog is based on advanced filtering technologies in power plants which cut back sulfur dioxide emissions. Cleaner air is clearer air. And because of this, more sunlight reaches the ground.
Chemtrails in Goethe's times
If one follows the arguments of chemtrail proponents, chemtrails already occured in Goethe's times. On Thursday, May 20th, 1820 Goethe noted: Very clear sky early in the day, by and by light cirrus, around noon rare, utmost outstanding phenomena, calling me out from the narrows to a free stead. Coming from west, accompanied by a resolute southerly wind, long, tender cirrus strips pulled up, solitarily as well as combined; while heading forward the front end bended to become small clouds, slightly further down blurred white cloudlets were moving, to be absorbed by those stripes , all kinds of other cirrus were in the blue sky, cirrocumulus, gridded stripes , everything moving and changing. By and by the sky became clouded[...] .
There are a lot of fakes and easy to see through hoaxes circulating in connection with chemtrails.
In February 2008, chemtrail-proponent and internet message board moderator Peter Platte published a photo of uncertain origin (allegedly from a Vietnam War veteran) showing the interior of a chemtrail bomber (The 'Vietnam veteran' refers to one Tim White, a widely used reference in chemtrail circles. This Tim White is Timothy Patrick White, born on March 5th, 1947, a resident of Denver (Colorado). He is a fundamental Christian US patriot, well-known proponent of confused conspiracy theories who uses several pseudonyms and was sentenced for possession of narcotics and stalking).
Platte wrote in this message board: [...] this is simply sensational. This photo is the dream of every ct activist. We have been waiting for this for years and it looks like there are more disclosures to come. Judging from the plane's interior measures it seems to be a Boeing KC 767 of the US-Air Force, one of 200. Up to now we only knew that chemicals used for spraying were filled in containers by UN inspectors at manufacturers' sites, with containers sealed and shipped to the different operating sites afterwards. Now we also know what these containers look like and how they are connected in series and linked to the elect. system for controlling. I still can hardly believe that we now have a photo that is clear evidence of how spraying is done and how the system works. A really big 'Thank you' to the former Air Force Pilot who provided the photo. Peter [...] Other board members added: [...]That's the critter from inside. One can spot words like "SPRAYER 1" and "HAZARD INSIDE". Creepy.[...] Great picture, no doubt!!
The picture, however, was a simple fake of a copyrighted photo published on the internet. According to her own accounts, a user of the Freigeistforum (free thinker board) called fighthamster simply added fake inscriptions to two photos of a Boeing 777 passenger jet which, in the course of approval procedures, was equipped with measurement equipment and water containers serving as dead weight. Platte, totally uncritical and gullible, embarrassed himself because he did not even notice the regular portholes visible in the photo. The websiteENR even further expanded this wild fantasy around the bogus photo: The dead-weight containers (in reality adapted beer casks) on the photos were, according to user united-mutations, tanks sealed by manufacturers under supervision of UN inspectors. The planes allegedly were altered to chemtrail sprayers in a secret place called Pinal Airpark (Arizona), under supervision of the CIA, and had been in use worldwide since November 1998 (with the notable exception of China). Tim White was named as the source of this amusing slipslop. A certain Ted Twietmeyer (email@example.com) claimed something similar at rense.com, but at least recognized the picture as a fake. Pinal Airpark (ICAO-identifier: KMZJ; IATA: MZJ) was used by the CIA during the Vietnam War and meanwhile is an aircraft cemetery (storage space for discarded planes). Most of the planes there are from Northwest Airlines.
The Hamer supporter David Münnich is another source of forged pictures. He was born in 1982, lives in Saarbrücken and works as a web designer. It is due to his efforts that photos taken during the Ardennes Offensive in 1944 were presented as having been taken in Iraq war in 2003.
This demonstrates the shortcomings of arguing without giving verifiable sources.
Another proponent of Chemtrails is extremist right esoteric conspiracy theorist Jo Conrad. In August 2010, Conrad tried to spread the theory in his "Freigeist-Forum" [free thinkers' board] by showing a picture of an alleged chemtrail aircraft (see screenshot to the right dating from August, 26th 2010 11:20am). The picture, however, shows nothing but "aerodynamic rainbow contrails" which can be attributed to a hoax. The picture caption e.g. mentions "Barium-Hypertitanit", "Terraformit", and even "Spinnoinium-Oxydul". Fantasy substances like Spinnoinium (roughly: Crazeonium) or Terraformit do not exist and were only used to make the hoax more palpable. Explanations of measurement technology further reveal the hoax: Searching for devices like a "telegas chromatograph" or a "telerelevator" of a company by the name of "GCMS" only lead to further references of the hoax.
The original picture was taken in 2006 and, in contrast to the wrong caption in the hoax, shows a Virgin Atlantic Airways Airbus A340-642 (identification: G-VBLU) over China with a "rainbow-contrail" at an altitude between 8,000 and 9,000 meters.
Usage of Pictures without any references in the Chemtrail Scene
Besides shady hypotheses (not backed by any facts) and fake or manipulated pictures, the national as well as international chemtrail scene typically presents photos of aircrafts while spraying chemtrails, even though such photos neither allow a correct identification of respective aircrafts nor are they interpreted appropriately. They aim at impressing gullible viewers and laypersons with misinterpretations and disinformation. At the same time, this is meant to boost sales of products like books, DVDs, seminars, and lectures.
There is a remarkable lack of reliable, verifiable references in this scene, including data specifications. Two typical examples of such photos without references are displayed at the right: A simple internet search, however, usually reveals the source of these photos (left side). Usually they show aircrafts generating smoke trails for the study of air eddies, fire-fighting planes or other planes spraying water in studies of icing processes of following aircrafts. There are lots of photos and extensive descriptions of such experiments in the internet.
Reactions to Chemtrail hypotheses and Scientific View
Neither is there any evidence for chemtrails nor are their proponents able to produce such. Quite a number of logical reasons contradict their possible existence. Condensation trails are a well reviewed phenomenon and technical articles on this date back to the 1940ies. Already NACA, the predecessor of NASA, examined this phenomenon due to its military relevance for locating aircrafts in WWII. In a document dated 1942 (decades prior to chemtrail hypotheses), NACA researchers identified the meteorological circumstances responsible for persistent contrails. So far no evidence for the existence of aluminum or barium in condensation trails or aircraft fuels has been established. The Deutsche Flugsicherung GmbH (German Air Traffic Control) confirmed they did not observe any conspicuous or remarkable air activity which could be associated with the circumstance described in „Raum & Zeit". The Deutsche Wetterdienst (German Meteorological Service) informed their data do not show any peculiarities indicating any irregular forms of condensation trails.
The Bundesministerium der Verteidigung (German Federal Ministry of Defence) also has no further information. Headquarters of the US-Air Force Europe informed that projects as described do not and did not exist. Greenpeace as well as the Umweltbundesamt (UBA, German Federal Environment Agency) regard the chemtrail theory as dubious. The UBA even inquired with the World Health Organization (WHO) about an alleged risk analysis on potential consequences of chemtrails supposedly conducted by WHO. WHO assured they neither knew of chemtrails nor had they done any study on the subject. The phenomena described are also unknown to Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR, German Aerospace Center). Since many years, DLR's Institute of Atmosphere Physics has been examining the effects of air traffic emissions on the atmosphere, including numerous measurements of gas and particle emissions of commercial aircrafts. Neither is the German Meteorological Service able to detect anomalies in their data indicating special chemtrail forms in condensation trails. The German Federal Government also commented on chemtrails in 2004: Excerpt from a reply (reference: Deutscher Bundestag Drucksache 15/3694) of the Federal Government given to Herbert Frankenhauser (member of parliament, party: CSU): [...]Question: Are so-called chemtrails (chemical traces sprayed by aircrafts) released to research the reduction of global warming over the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany? Reply of Parliamentary State Secretary Simone Probst dated September, 8th 2004: The Federal Government has no knowledge regarding aircrafts releasing so-called chemtrails in the atmosphere in Europe.
Chemtrails and Cloudbuster
Some chemtrail proponents believe that copper tubes (arranged in so-called Cloudbusters) were able to diffuse such condensation trails. The cloudbuster concept goes back to Wilhelm Reich. The so-called 'Chembusters are improvements going back to the American businessman, esoteric, and private pilot Don Croft (see also: Georg Ritschl).
Chemtrails and the Yellow Revolution of ENR
European New Resistance is a new group currently forming in different cities and trying to recruit members. It uses "chemtrails" in a populist manner to draw public attention to all kinds of issues they consider a grievance. Conspiracy theory internet portals like NWO-Fighter.info, infokrieg.tv and terraristen.net joined their activities. Naive esoteric campaigners from "Motzblog" (grumble blog) and the associated internet board "Motzlabor" (grumble laboratory) are behind these activities. Interestingly, the Address by Commandante Don may also be found on the so-called Reichszeitung, a typical extreme right KRR (Kommissarische Reichsregierung, Provisional Government of the German Reich) publication. They gained public attention in summer 2008 when they hired Cologne-based outdoor advertising company Kölner Außenwerbung KAW to put up anti-condensation trail posters.
Chemtrails, vaccination opponents, and Avian Flu
In quite absurd a way, chemtrails were used by Anita Petek-Dimmer in her anti-vaccination campaign. Quotation: The radioactive radiation effect of plutonium-enriched chemtrails spreads out to forests, meadows, farm- and grassland[...] The soil bacteria are killed by contamination and partly dissolve. These bacteria are essential in regulating the water balance. This radiation results in aggradation, desertification and soil crusting. This is most probably also one of the reasons for avian flu.
According to Berlin-based alleged expert and technical consultant for low-intensity radioactivity and radioactive effects Brigitte Schlabitz, avian flu is not caused by a virus, but by the precipitation of "nuclear-induced cloud formations". According to Schlabritz, the ailing and dying of indoor plants was caused by radioactive chemtrails in many cases. Additionally, "micro chips" are said to play a role in the effects caused by chemtrails.
Chemtrail and Politics
German NPD, an extremist right political party, felt compelled to issue a parliamentary inquiry regarding chemtrails to the government of the federal state of Saxony. Often, extremist right activists use the issue of chemtrail to lure in uninformed persons (particularly those overstrained and afraid of life) in order to draw them to antisemitic writings and extremist opinions.
In January 2009, the local group of Bündnis 90/Die Grünen (German ecological party) in the town of Glashütten (population 5,500) published an outrageously disinforming pamphlet on chemtrails on their web site . Titled The destruction of the sky by chemtrails, it claimed the population was poisoned by aircrafts distributing barium, aluminum and Sulfur [this term is not used in German language and most probably the result of translating without comprehension] at the alleged cost of billions of Euros. Neither witnesses nor reliable evidence backed these outrageous accusations. When asked via e-mail, the operator of the website was not able to answer the question of how to prove these alleged poisonous trails.
Chemtrail courses at the VHS (Adult Education Center) Oldenburg
At least since March 2008, solar-collector assembler Werner Altnickel was allowed to give lectures on the pseudo-scientific conspiracy theory of chemtrails and the ionospheric research program HAARP at VHS Oldenburg [Adult Education Centre] to a paying audience. Having paid 15 EUR, participants will learn how HAARP allegedly acts as a "ionospheric heater", "opens" ozone holes, "directs storms", and creates tsunamis and earthquakes. Altnickel is neither a meteorologist nor a geophysicist and his lectures therefore are a layperson's speculations. Earlier in 2010, it became known that VHS department manager Claudia Grove, responsible for the administration of VHS courses, personally lobbied for the inclusion of Altnickel's absurd conspiracy theories in the curriculum offered at VHS Oldenburg. In an e-mail reply to a person complaining about spreading such conspiracy theories and about the abuse of a public institution, Grove wrote: Dear Mr. XXX, in your e-mail of January, 17th you proved an attentive reader of our course program. Of course we are really glad about this, and we are open to critical comments. It is of course among the duties of an adult education center to inform about controversial issues. This includes information on chemtrails, the existence of which is indisputable. We were surprised, however, that you expressed such a pointed criticism without revealing yourself. Kind regards, Claudia Grove
Versions of this article in other languages
- Deutsch: Chemtrail
- Pearson HA, Condensation trails where they occur and what can be done about them,1942, NTRS:2006-11-06, Report Number: NACA-WR-L-474. link: 
- German version used as base for this article
- Hintergrundpapier des Umweltbundesamtes zu Chemtrails
- Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie: Welche Rolle spielen Kondensstreifen für unser Klima?*http://www.martin-wagner.org/anti-chemtrails.htm
- Sebastian Knauer: Metall am Himmel. DER SPIEGEL 1/2005 (kurzer Artikel zur Chemtrail-Verschwörungstheorie)
- Frage von M. Baumann: Gibt es die „Chemtrails“ wirklich? FOCUS, 07.12.2006
- NACA-publication on persistent contrails from 1942
- http://www.env.leeds.ac.uk/envi1200/slides/Chapter%209.pdf on Contrail-formation
Versions of this article in other languages
- ↑ 18.07.2000 - http://www.rense.com/general2/pat.htm
- ↑ 27.07.2000 - http://www.clydelewis.com/invest/contrails/msnbc72798.html
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- ↑ Zeitenschrift issue 49, 2006
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- ↑ http://www.welt.de/print-welt/article217386/Weisse_Streifen__am_Himmel.html
- ↑ http://naca.central.cranfield.ac.uk/reports/1942/naca-wr-l-474.pdf
- ↑ http://www.env.leeds.ac.uk/envi1200/slides/Chapter%209.pdf
- ↑ Clayden aW: http://contrailscience.com/files/Cloud_Studies.pdf
- ↑ http://docs.lib.noaa.gov/rescue/mwr/049/mwr-049-07-0412c.pdf
- ↑ Everett Wells: Article in Scientific American, ”Clouds formed by Airplanes“, 7.6.1919, page 60
- ↑ A. Petek-Dimmer: Vogelgrippe oder Vogelwahn. Wie man mit gezielter Propaganda Angst und Hysterie erzeugt. AEGIS IMPULS Nr. 23 2005
- ↑ http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/mensch/0,1518,445727,00.html
- ↑ http://www.presse.uni-karlsruhe.de/6428.php
- ↑ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_KC-135_Stratotanker
- ↑ http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/vaop/ncurrent/abs/ngeo414.html
- ↑ http://www.welt.de/welt_print/article3050704/Der-Nebel-ueber-Europa-zieht-langsam-ab.html
- ↑ J. W. v. Goethe, Zur Naturwissenschaft überhaupt, Band 1 Heft 3,1820
- ↑ http://www.airliners.net/photo/Boeing/Boeing-777-240-LR/0855967/L/
- ↑ http://www.pbase.com/bruceleibowitz/mzj
- ↑ http://contrailscience.com/aerodynamic-and-rainbow-contrails
- ↑ http://www.airliners.net/photo/Virgin-Atlantic-Airways/Airbus-A340-642/1088680/&sid=db4bb4807cfd3a3ce2356089fe628624
- ↑ http://dipbt.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/15/036/1503694.pdf
- ↑ http://netzklempnerin.wordpress.com/2008/07/20/die-gelben-piraten-aus-taka-tuka-land/
- ↑ http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/117864615/PDFSTART?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
- ↑ Volkshochschule Oldenburg, Kursprogramm Ratgeber und Praxis, Natur (Courses 'Guidebook and praxis, nature'). Die Macht über das Wetter - Chemische und elektromagnetische Wettermanipulationen [Weather at disposal – Chemical and electromagnetic weather manipulations]. According to the instructor's opinion, weather manipulations with damaging effects on health and life have taken place since more than 55 years. The Geneva ENMOD convention of 1977 outlawed artificial earthquakes and tsunamis, the selective opening of ozone holes, the directing of storms, and the electrical manipulation of the ionosphere etc. In 1998, the EU met to outlaw installations like the »ionosphere heater« HAARP, without success. Werner Altnickel. One-time presentation (4 lessons), Tuesday, February 16,2010, 7pm - 10pm. Meeting place: Wilhelm- Kempin-Str. 55 , 25 participants, € 12 , Kursnummer X19500. Volkshochschule Oldenburg e.V. - Telefon: (0441) 92391-0 , Telefax: (0441) 92391-13 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Internet: www.vhs-ol.de , Wallstraße 17 (Am Waffenplatz) 26122 Oldenburg
- ↑ http://reflexion.blogsport.de/tag/chemtrail
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